Integrating rural development, climate change and sustainable natural resources management in the Asia-Pacific Community p...
Climate change….<br />
What does it mean for the rural poor?<br />Is climate change perceived by the rural communities?<br />What do they perceiv...
IFAD Grant 1113<br />Livelihoods and Ecosystem Services in the Himalayas: Enhancing Adaptation Capacity and Resilience of ...
Understanding the issues: The process<br />Enhanced adaptive capacities & resilience <br />Improved livelihoods and reduce...
Documentations: The canvas….(where and with whom)<br />Survey districts<br />Bhutan<br />Pemagatshel<br />TrashiYangste<br...
Community perceptions on climate change, impacts and responses : Approach & methodology (How..)<br />Approach: Participato...
Community based Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment Framework</li></ul>Methodology<br /><ul><li>PRA Toolkit
Tool I – Seasonal Dependency (Support systems, Resource diversity & availability)
Tool II – Seasonal Calendar (Seasonal activities)
Tool III  - Weather perceptions (Seasonality, duration, change)
Tool IV – Hazard Ranking (Weather & weather induced)
Tool V – Venn diagram (Institutional dependency)</li></ul>Participatory interpretation of PRA results :  <br />Impacts, co...
Community perceptions: Weather change (in months)<br />Uttarakhand:<br />Snowfall<br />Onset:  1 delayed<br />Completion: ...
Community perceptions: Hazard ranking <br />Uttarakhand:<br />1.Dry spells  (4.17)<br />2.Temp (H)  (3.92)<br />Weather-in...
Community perceptions: Support systems(Resource base)    <br />Annual average: annual average of all districts <br />
Community perceptions: Major impacts<br />Uttarakhand:<br />Delayed and reduced snowfall:<br />Impact on winter crops <br ...
Community perceptions: Resource availability (resource base)    <br />Annual average: annual average of all districts <br />
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APR Workshop 2010-Sustainable Natural Resources Management-Dhrupad Chowdhury

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APR Workshop 2010-Sustainable Natural Resources Management-Dhrupad Chowdhury

  1. 1. Integrating rural development, climate change and sustainable natural resources management in the Asia-Pacific Community perceptions of change, impact, responses and needs: lessons from the HimalayasIFAD Annual Portfolio Review Workshop1-4 November, 2010, Nanning, China <br />
  2. 2. Climate change….<br />
  3. 3. What does it mean for the rural poor?<br />Is climate change perceived by the rural communities?<br />What do they perceive?<br />How is it affecting their livelihoods?<br />How are they responding? <br />What support is required by the poor?<br />From whom?<br />
  4. 4. IFAD Grant 1113<br />Livelihoods and Ecosystem Services in the Himalayas: Enhancing Adaptation Capacity and Resilience of the Poor to Climate and Socioeconomic Changes<br />Bhutan, India & Nepal<br />October, 2009 – September, 2012<br />IFAD Loan projects & other partners<br />
  5. 5. Understanding the issues: The process<br />Enhanced adaptive capacities & resilience <br />Improved livelihoods and reduced poverty<br />
  6. 6. Documentations: The canvas….(where and with whom)<br />Survey districts<br />Bhutan<br />Pemagatshel<br />TrashiYangste<br />India<br />Uttarakhand<br />Almora<br />Bageshwar<br />Tehri<br />NE India<br />W Garo Hills<br />E Garo Hills<br />RiBhoi<br />KarbiAnglong<br />Ukhrul<br />Nepal<br />(West)<br />Humla<br />Bajhang<br />Dailekh<br />(Central & East)<br />Tanahu<br />Terathum<br />Uttarakhand: 3<br />Bhutan: 2<br />Nepal: 3+2<br />N E India: 5<br />Total: 15 districts (6 villages per district); 90 villages<br />(criteria – elevation, accessibility, marginality)<br />Elevation range: 50-3500 M ASL<br />6 IFAD Projects: <br />Bhutan: AMEPP <br />India: Aajeevika, MRDS & NERCORMP<br />Nepal: WUPAP & LFLP <br />
  7. 7. Community perceptions on climate change, impacts and responses : Approach & methodology (How..)<br />Approach: Participatory Rural Appraisal <br /><ul><li>Based on ICIMOD Strategic Framework on Climate Change Adaptation
  8. 8. Community based Vulnerability and Capacity Assessment Framework</li></ul>Methodology<br /><ul><li>PRA Toolkit
  9. 9. Tool I – Seasonal Dependency (Support systems, Resource diversity & availability)
  10. 10. Tool II – Seasonal Calendar (Seasonal activities)
  11. 11. Tool III - Weather perceptions (Seasonality, duration, change)
  12. 12. Tool IV – Hazard Ranking (Weather & weather induced)
  13. 13. Tool V – Venn diagram (Institutional dependency)</li></ul>Participatory interpretation of PRA results : <br />Impacts, coping/adaptive mechanisms<br />
  14. 14. Community perceptions: Weather change (in months)<br />Uttarakhand:<br />Snowfall<br />Onset: 1 delayed<br />Completion: 1-2 early<br />Duration: (-) 2-3<br />Rainfall<br />Onset: 2-3 delayed<br />Completion: 4 early<br />Duration: (-) 3-4<br />Dry periods<br />Onset: (+) 2-3<br />Completion: 1-2 prolonged<br />Duration: (+) 3<br />New periods: 3-4 <br />Nepal:<br />Snowfall<br />Onset: 1 delayed<br />Completion: 1 early<br />Duration: (-) 2-3<br />Rainfall<br />Onset: 1-2 delayed<br />Completion: 3 early<br />Duration: (-) 3-4<br />Dry periods<br />Onset: (+) 2-3<br />Completion: 1-2 prolonged<br />Duration: (+) 3<br />New periods: 2-3<br />Bhutan<br />Snowfall<br />Onset: ½ delay (earlier in some)<br />Completion: early in some villages<br />Duration: local changes<br />Rainfall<br />Onset: ½ early (in some villages)<br />Completion: no change<br />Duration: no change<br />Dry periods<br />Onset: delayed in some villages<br />Completion: No change<br />Duration: (-) ½ <br />N E India:<br />Rainfall<br />Dryspell 5<br />NE India<br />Rainfall<br />Onset: ½ -1 delayed (in some villages)<br />Completion: ½ earlier <br />Duration: (-) 1 <br />Dry periods<br />Onset: ½ to 1 <br />Completion: ½ to 1 prolonged<br />Duration: (+) 1-2 <br />New periods: 1-2 <br />
  15. 15. Community perceptions: Hazard ranking <br />Uttarakhand:<br />1.Dry spells (4.17)<br />2.Temp (H) (3.92)<br />Weather-induced hazards<br />1.Pests (3.8)<br />2.Forest fires (3.8)<br />(Landslides)<br />Nepal:<br />1. Dry spells (4.8)<br />2. Storms (3.0)<br />Weather-induced hazards<br />1.Pests (3.0)<br />(Landslides)<br />NE India<br />1.Dry spells (4.3)<br />2.Temp (H) (3.4)<br />3.Storms (3.0)<br />4.Hailstorms (3.0)<br />Weather-induced hazards<br />1.Pests (4.0)<br />(Flash floods, landslides)<br />Hazard ranking: <br />scale of 1-5; 5= maximum impact; <br />(Av. of all villages) <br />
  16. 16. Community perceptions: Support systems(Resource base) <br />Annual average: annual average of all districts <br />
  17. 17. Community perceptions: Major impacts<br />Uttarakhand:<br />Delayed and reduced snowfall:<br />Impact on winter crops <br />Increased pests (particularly white grub)<br />New crop opportunities<br />Delayed rainfall, prolonged dry spells:<br />Sowing delayed, yield effected<br />Seedlings wilt<br />Reduced forage<br />Increased pests<br />Early maturing of some crops; new cropping opportunity<br />Severe water scarcity (drinking & irrigation)<br />Nepal:<br />Delayed and reduced snowfall:<br />Impact on winter crops – wheat<br />Increased pests (particularly white grub)<br />Delayed rainfall, prolonged dry spells:<br />Sowing delayed, yield effected<br />Seedlings wilt<br />Reduced forage<br />Increased pests<br />Early maturing of some crops; new cropping opportunity<br />Storms <br />Vegetable and fruit plants effected<br />Food scarcity, water shortage<br />NE India<br />Delayed rainfall, increased hot temperatures, increased water scarcity:<br />Sowing, germination of crops effected; increased pests;<br />yields reducing<br />Storms, Hailstorms <br />horticulture crops (cash & vegetable crops) effected<br />Food and income effected<br />
  18. 18. Community perceptions: Resource availability (resource base) <br />Annual average: annual average of all districts <br />
  19. 19. Community responses: Coping & adaptive mechanisms<br />Uttarakhand:<br /><ul><li>Cropping delayed (15 days – 1 month)
  20. 20. Covering sown seeds with litter, FYM
  21. 21. Polyhouses for vegetables (Aajeevika)
  22. 22. Alternative crops (coping):</li></ul>Rice – pulses, soya, sesame, coarse grains (mandua/ragi) or madira(fodder)<br />Mandua – madira or ginger, soya, urad (pulse) or potato<br /><ul><li>Crop replacements (adaptive)</li></ul>Wheat – ginger, tumeric, mustard<br />Maize – cauliflower, peas, soya, vegetable climbers<br />Cereals – potato<br />Groundnut – ginger<br />Cereals – horticulture<br />Aloe vera (Aajeevika)<br /><ul><li>New opportunities (due to warmer weather):</li></ul>Groundnut, beans<br />Peas, cauliflower (after potato harvest – additional income)<br />Nepal:<br /><ul><li>Cropping delayed (1 month)
  23. 23. Wet maize seeds prior to sowing; deep sow seeds
  24. 24. Dry seed beds (rice) – wet seeds, germinate, transplant
  25. 25. Crop rotation – Horsegram/ blackgram/ sesame
  26. 26. Mixed cropping – maize, beans; millet, blackgram
  27. 27. Alternative crops (coping):</li></ul>Millet – maize, upland rice, black gram, chino, mustard, Philunge (beans) <br />Wheat, barley - buckwheat<br />Buckwheat – turnip, mustard, green leafy vegetables, <br /><ul><li>Crop replacements (adaptive)</li></ul>Wheat, barley – potato<br />Apple - potato<br />Groundnut – blackgram & horsegram<br />Maize – banana<br />Rice – maize/ginger<br /><ul><li>Varietal replacements</li></ul>Wheat: Daudkhani by Jhuse<br />Rice: Chhiti/Jwali by Laidiya/Rui/Anjana<br />Marso, DarnalibyMunyasonali/Jhyali<br />NE India<br /><ul><li>Cropping delayed
  28. 28. Seeds dibbled (deep sown); seeds soaked, broadcast
  29. 29. Early harvest (to avoid storms/hailstorm)
  30. 30. Cropping season shift (summer to winter)
  31. 31. Systems shift – WRC to shifting cultivation
  32. 32. Bamboo matting mesh to avoid siltation of fields due to flash floods
  33. 33. Use of Pomelo (citrus) peals, Samsneng, Magvit, bamboo shoot extract, So-ik, jarmanand l-upo against pests;
  34. 34. hang crab carcass against rice bug
  35. 35. Use of dwarf or early maturing varieties (against hailstorms);
  36. 36. Banana intercropping with areca and litchi
  37. 37. Alternative crops</li></ul>Sesame, soyabeans, rice beans, cowpea<br /><ul><li>Alternative varieties:</li></ul>Rice -Sapa, Methungia, Amosa, Chuibok, Soksu, Naka<br />Millet – Alika<br />Short duration and dwarf varieties grown to avoid loss from hailstorms<br />
  38. 38. Community responses: Adaptive mechanisms<br />Uttarakhand:<br />Livestock:<br />Reduced numbers (fodder, forage shortage)<br />Large ruminants to small animals (goats)<br />Occupational shifts:<br />Farming to carpentry, masonry<br />Wage earning (roadside eateries, wage labour)<br />Migration: Seasonal migration or long-term <br />Water-harvesting<br />Oak regeneration, catchment protection <br />Institutional arrangements<br />Water sharing<br />Labour sharing arrangements<br />Nepal:<br />Livestock:<br />Reduced numbers (fodder, forage shortage)<br />Large ruminants to small animals (goats)<br />Occupational shifts:<br />Farming to carpet weaving, carpentry<br />Wage earning<br />Seasonal migration (lean months – to India)<br />Long-term – Gulf, SE Asia or Korea<br />NE India<br />Livestock:<br />Preference for smaller ruminants (goats), poultry<br />Farming to sand mining (rivers)<br />Farming to weaving<br />Seasonal wage earning in mines, plantations, road building<br />Wage earning from MREGA<br />
  39. 39. Community perceptions: Institutional dependency<br />Uttarakhand:<br />Neighbours<br />Relatives<br />Pradhan (Elected Headman)<br />Gram Sabha/Panchayat<br />SHGs<br />PDS<br />Atta Chakki (village mill)<br />Aajeevika<br />Swajal<br />Block office<br />PHC/hospital<br />Bank<br />KrishiVigyan Kendra (Agriculture Centres)<br />Nepal:<br />Mothers groups <br />LFUGs (project groups)<br />Village Women Development Committee<br />CFUG (Community Forest User Groups)<br />Moneylender<br />Shopkeeper<br />Vaidya (Traditional ayurvedicpractioner)<br />Agro-vet centres<br />DADO/DLSO<br />DDC<br />DFO<br />NGOs<br />INGOs<br />WFP/PAF/USAID<br />NE India<br />Neighbours<br />Relatives<br />Clan<br />Youth groups (Sengsamlang)<br />Women’s groups (Sengkynthei)<br />Traditional Village Institutions (Dorbar, Sardar, Nokma, Mahari)<br />Church<br />SHGs<br />NaRMG (NERCORMP)<br />MRDS<br />Village Employment Council<br />Area Employment Council<br />Traditional Institutions (Syiems, Nokma Council)<br />Market/Traders<br />Agriculture, Horticulture & Vet. Dept.<br />PWD<br />Health<br />District Commissioner<br />MDC<br />
  40. 40. Changes : Responding to immediate and long-term needs<br />Water stress and impacts: <br />Knowledge transfer and capacity building for soil nutrient & water management <br />Stress tolerant crop varieties – strengthening TPs & blending with modern science; PARs of stress tolerant varieties; Seed Banks & Exchange<br />Enhance access to knowledge and technical outreach: cross exchange between practitioners, community led outreach<br />Strengthening NRM: water harvesting, recharge and catchment management<br />Need for enhancing income generating options <br />Risk assessment of existing value chains for climate induced risk reduction<br />Capitalise on emerging opportunities – value chain development<br />Off-farm opportunities – expand and develop<br />Improve financial services, especially risk insurance <br />Skill development in off-farm sectors<br />
  41. 41. Changes: Some long-term implications<br />Food security:<br />Reduced yields, particularly of staples (WRCs)<br />Replacement of foodgrains by commodity/cash crops (conversion of areas under foodgrains to non foodgrain crops/activities)<br />Increased arable land left fallow (inadequate labour/returns)<br />Labour shift – agriculture to non-farm, migration<br />Reduction of livestock numbers<br />Shift from larger livestock to smaller ruminants (implications for milk, milk products: income thereof)<br />Inadequate draught animals for ploughing<br />Shift from farming to non-farming sectors<br />Increased feminisation of agriculture<br />Implications for foodgrain, milk and milk products availability – food security..?<br />

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