Argument: Labour migration in the HKH is predominantly male! Source: ICIMOD Study 2011, about 1,300 HH, by Soumyadeep Banerjee et al.
Key argument: Impact on women who are left behind is mixed[base on a qualitative field study in Uttarakhand, Jain 2010]Example Positive Effect Remittances on Girls Education:In Pakistan, enrolment rates for girls increased by 54% and their dropout rate decreased by 55%; the number of years of schooling increased by 1.5 years for girls and 1 year for boys (Mansuri 2007)
(Source: ICIMOD Synthesis 2010, Hoermann et al)To 1The outreach and quality of school education and vocational training in mountain areas is very low. The majority of migrants from the western HKH are unskilled and, as migrants, only qualify for low paid jobs. Low earnings make it difficult for migrants to save after covering consumption and accommodation needs at the destination. However, migrants learn skills at their destination. Unskilled labour is transformed into skilled labour with high potential for use at the place of origin. Nevertheless, these skills mostly find little opportunity for application in their origin communities (see Chapter 3). Low savings, remittances lost in repaying loans, and unusable acquired skills or human capital for mountain areas are impedients to development that can be addressed by fostering and managing skilled migration. To 2The majority of migrants cannot rely on family and friends for funds to migrate and turn to moneylenders for credit as there are no formal lending services. Moneylenders charge up to 12 times the price of formal credit institutions. Savings among mountain people are low partly because they have low earnings and lose a substantial part of these earnings in paying back loans, but also because savings and investment opportunities are rare in rural mountain areas and thus there is no incentive to save. Overall, the western HKH lacks formal financial services for credit, saving, and investment. Of equal concern is the limited financial literacy among marginalised mountain communities. The studies found that, even where formal financial services are available, they are not used because people are either not aware of them or shy away from the bureaucratic procedures involved. The limited outreach of formal financial institutions in remote mountain areas is one of the main reasons why migration sometimes turns into a debt trap, rather than a successful livelihood strategy (see Chapter 3). The recommendation is, hence, twofold: (1) Extend the outreach of formal financial institutions, such as banks, micro-finance institutions (MFIs), and credit cooperatives to provide cheaper loans and financial services for micro-saving, investment, and insurance. (2) Use the extended network of MFIs and credit cooperatives to raise financial literacy among mountain communities. To 3The major challenge involved in transferring remittances to the western HKH is the limited outreach of payout locations. In the few cases where payout locations are, or could be, available, regulatory issues or the limited financial literacy and awareness of communities on how to use these services, prevent them from being used (see Chapter 3). There is an urgent need for an increase in overall financial services in rural mountain areas. The following recommendations specifically address improving the transfer of remittances: (1) Improve the rural outreach of micro-finance institutions (MFIs). Build the MFI regulatory framework and the capacity of post offices to act as payout locations. (2) Increase awareness among migrants about the different methods of sending money back home and the risks involved in informal transfers. (3) Adopt new technologies such as branchless banking and mobile banking in the western HKH to facilitate cheap, easy, and secure remittance transfers. There are already experiences of this in the Indian Himalayas. In the Hindu Kush, Vodafone-piloted mobile banking in Afghanistan and Pakistan is already in an advanced stage in expanding the outreach of mobile banking to the rural poor (see www.cgaporg). To 4Migrants return with money and new skills. In most cases, there is little opportunity to invest either, or, as the case studies showed, migrants do not recognise local investment opportunities (see discussion in Chapter 3). The objective is to create investment opportunities that are tailored to the financial and human capital that migrants bring home. The traditional path is to improve opportunities for agriculture or non-timber forest products (NTFPs). High potential is as well in mountain tourism, a ‘return migration’ to cooler areas or ‘second homes’ is observed. Investments in mountain areas for recreation purposes is increasing.To 5The case studies clearly underline that labour migration in the western HKH is a predominantly male phenomenon. Women are generally left behind. As a result, any intervention to increase the development impact of labour migration in the origin communities, including in the migrants’ households, requires a strong gender perspective.
Sustainable Development in Mountain Areas: Changes and opportunities
Sustainable Developmentin Mountain Areas:Change & OpportunitiesDavid MoldenInternational Centre for Integrated Mountain DevelopmentKathmandu, Nepal
Mountains Matter• Mountains ecosystems – a global resource Vital for water, food, energy, forests, biodiversity• Mountains are under pressure• Mountain people offer solutions
The Mountain Agenda: NewChallenges since Rio (1992)• Climate change• Growing concerns - water scarcity, carbon and forests, energy security, and food security• Persistent poverty• Globalization – economic growth, connectivity• Outmigration and feminization of landscape
New Opportunities• Climate change and disasters have opened the doors to regional cooperation• Growing market for niche products• Mountains as providers of ecosystem services• Information technologies Change offers opportunities
Mountains are of regional and global concern – water, food, energy www.icimod.orgRegional Member Countries: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal and Pakistan
Impact of Climate Change - Imja Glacier, Nepal 1956 photograph of Imja glacier (Photo: Fritz Muller; courtesy of Jack Ives) 2006photograph of Imja glacier (Photo: Giovanni Kappenbergercourtesy of Alton C Byers)
Opportunities / needs• Opportunity – regional cooperation around floods, and water availability• Flood warning systems• Increase water storage assets• Climate smart landscape management
Watershed management andCC mitigationMitigation potential vs water consumption• Mitigation/REDD+ potential Higher in forested watersheds and with afforestation/reforestation potential However, forests can only take up carbon if they take up water at the same time negative impacts of reduced runoff in arid zones trade-offs
Mountain Poverty National average Bhutan Mountain regionHKH region Pakistan India NepalAfghanistanBangladesh 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Poverty higher in the mountains than in the plains, except for India (for Himalayan Hindu Kush)
Specificities Of Mountain Poverty Access to Basic HH Assets and Facilities Accessibility Composition Liabilities Social StatusAfghanistan mountains X X XBangladesh mountains X na XEastern Bhutan X X X XUttarakhand X X XHimalayan West Bengal X X XNepal mountains X X XPakistan mountains X XInaccessibility & marginality (biophysical and social marginality arising out of lack ofaccess) – mountain specificities – are common determinants of poverty in all countries
Household Income Sources(Source: Poverty Assessment - PVAT, AdaptHimal)% contribution to HH Income HH having access: 91% • Land based activities Landownership: 82% contribution to HH HH cash crops: 72% Av holding: 0.12 ha income only 22% 16% Av plots: 4 22% • 54% HH income from off farm; of Agriculture this, 53% is contributed through 8% wage labour. • Opportunity? Off-Farm income increase returns from Agriculture & allied land based and Forestry (Herbs, MAPs etc) enhance off farm 54% options Business, Trade, labour etc Remittance
Opportunities• Mountain products – agricultural, forest, medicinal crops – have ‘niche’ value, comparative advantage• Potential of profitably tapping ‘seasonality’ of mountain product availability – ‘off season’ downstream• Untapped potential for enhancing returns – better management, optimising products, promotion of mountain products• Value chain approach to build up this sector and increase contribution to HH income
Outmigration• High rates of labour migration in may mountain areas• Diversification strategy for mountain livelihoods to reduce vulnerability• Migration – positive or negative?
Gendered migration in theHimalayasDistribution of labour migrants by gender
Reasons for wives beinghappy with labour migration More freedom Increase in decision making High social status Increase in incomes Better future for children 0 20 40 60 80 100
Reasons for wives’ unhappinessHusband developed extra marital affairs Low income of migrants Separation from husbands Unhappy with in-laws Workload increased 0 20 40 60 80 100
Key recommendations to increasedevelopment impact of remittancesand migration in the HKH1. Foster and manage skilled migration2. Financial services and financial literacy for rural areas to deal with remittances3. Address challenges of male-outmigrationIn combination with strategies to make rural mountain life more attractive
International Centre for IntegratedMountain Development
ICIMOD’s MissionMission Enable sustainable mountain development for improved well being through knowledge and regional cooperation.
A Regional Organization www.icimod.org 210 million people in the HKH 1.3 billion people downstreamRegional Member Countries: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal and Pakistan
Regional Programmes• Landscape transects / ecosystems• River Basins• Cryosphere• Adaptation to change / livelihoods• Regional data base / long term monitoring• Himalayan University Consortium** interdisciplinary work
Operationalisation of mountain-specific MPI Educational background Education HH head Q2 Education School attendance No. of school-going children Q6 Quality of education Distance to next school Q4 Illness Frequency of illnesses Q8 Health Health care Reserves for health care Q9 Nutrition Food consumption Q51 Basic goods Non-food consumption Q52Poverty Living standard Assets Telephone/mobile owned Q59 Quality of dwelling Quality of walls Q11.1 Electricity Availability of electricity Q12.1 Access to basic Water Impr. source of drinking water Q14 facilities Sanitation Improved toilet facility Q13.1 Accessibility Access to facilities Distance to market centre Q4
Operationalization of Vulnerability Socio-demographic profile Dependency ratio Q1 Entitlement to resources Agricultural land per head Q22 Livelihood strategies Remittances per head Q54 Adaptive capacity Social networks No. of institut. which helped Q43 Accessibility Time to next market centre Q4 Coping strategies No. of adaptation strategies Q48 Wellbeing Per head consumption Q51, Q52 Health/sanitation Drinking water quality Q19Vulnerability Sensitivity Food security No. of month food suffficient Q49 Water security No. of month water sufficient Q17 Environmental fragility Quality of wall material Q11 Natural shocks No. of natural shocks Q42 Economic shocks No. of economic shocks Q42 Exposure Perception of climate variability Perc. change in temperature Q48 Climate variability Extreme temperature data n.a.
System to delineate pockets ofpoverty & vulnerability (PVAT results) 9 districts; 4 mtns; 3 hills; 2 terai Vulnerability (within districts) 3600 households Vulnerability Districts Food security (within districts) Multiple dimensions for determining pockets of poverty and vulnerability