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Sustainable Development in Mountain Areas: Changes and opportunities


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Sustainable Development in Mountain Areas: Changes and opportunities

  1. 1. Sustainable Developmentin Mountain Areas:Change & OpportunitiesDavid MoldenInternational Centre for Integrated Mountain DevelopmentKathmandu, Nepal
  2. 2. Mountains Matter• Mountains ecosystems – a global resource Vital for water, food, energy, forests, biodiversity• Mountains are under pressure• Mountain people offer solutions
  3. 3. The Mountain Agenda: NewChallenges since Rio (1992)• Climate change• Growing concerns - water scarcity, carbon and forests, energy security, and food security• Persistent poverty• Globalization – economic growth, connectivity• Outmigration and feminization of landscape
  4. 4. New Opportunities• Climate change and disasters have opened the doors to regional cooperation• Growing market for niche products• Mountains as providers of ecosystem services• Information technologies Change offers opportunities
  5. 5. Mountains are of regional and global concern – water, food, energy www.icimod.orgRegional Member Countries: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal and Pakistan
  6. 6. Impact of Climate Change - Imja Glacier, Nepal 1956 photograph of Imja glacier (Photo: Fritz Muller; courtesy of Jack Ives) 2006photograph of Imja glacier (Photo: Giovanni Kappenbergercourtesy of Alton C Byers)
  7. 7. Opportunities / needs• Opportunity – regional cooperation around floods, and water availability• Flood warning systems• Increase water storage assets• Climate smart landscape management
  8. 8. Watershed management andCC mitigationMitigation potential vs water consumption• Mitigation/REDD+ potential  Higher in forested watersheds and with afforestation/reforestation potential However, forests can only take up carbon if they take up water at the same time  negative impacts of reduced runoff in arid zones  trade-offs
  9. 9. Landscape Management forClimate Change FAO-ICIMOD New Generation Watershed Programme Proceedings
  10. 10. Mountain Poverty National average Bhutan Mountain regionHKH region Pakistan India NepalAfghanistanBangladesh 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Poverty higher in the mountains than in the plains, except for India (for Himalayan Hindu Kush)
  11. 11. Specificities Of Mountain Poverty Access to Basic HH Assets and Facilities Accessibility Composition Liabilities Social StatusAfghanistan mountains X X XBangladesh mountains X na XEastern Bhutan X X X XUttarakhand X X XHimalayan West Bengal X X XNepal mountains X X XPakistan mountains X XInaccessibility & marginality (biophysical and social marginality arising out of lack ofaccess) – mountain specificities – are common determinants of poverty in all countries
  12. 12. Household Income Sources(Source: Poverty Assessment - PVAT, AdaptHimal)% contribution to HH Income HH having access: 91% • Land based activities Landownership: 82% contribution to HH HH cash crops: 72% Av holding: 0.12 ha income only 22% 16% Av plots: 4 22% • 54% HH income from off farm; of Agriculture this, 53% is contributed through 8% wage labour. • Opportunity? Off-Farm income increase returns from Agriculture & allied land based and Forestry (Herbs, MAPs etc) enhance off farm 54% options Business, Trade, labour etc Remittance
  13. 13. Opportunities• Mountain products – agricultural, forest, medicinal crops – have ‘niche’ value, comparative advantage• Potential of profitably tapping ‘seasonality’ of mountain product availability – ‘off season’ downstream• Untapped potential for enhancing returns – better management, optimising products, promotion of mountain products• Value chain approach to build up this sector and increase contribution to HH income
  14. 14. Outmigration• High rates of labour migration in may mountain areas• Diversification strategy for mountain livelihoods to reduce vulnerability• Migration – positive or negative?
  15. 15. Gendered migration in theHimalayasDistribution of labour migrants by gender
  16. 16. Reasons for wives beinghappy with labour migration More freedom Increase in decision making High social status Increase in incomes Better future for children 0 20 40 60 80 100
  17. 17. Reasons for wives’ unhappinessHusband developed extra marital affairs Low income of migrants Separation from husbands Unhappy with in-laws Workload increased 0 20 40 60 80 100
  18. 18. Key recommendations to increasedevelopment impact of remittancesand migration in the HKH1. Foster and manage skilled migration2. Financial services and financial literacy for rural areas to deal with remittances3. Address challenges of male-outmigrationIn combination with strategies to make rural mountain life more attractive
  19. 19. International Centre for IntegratedMountain Development
  20. 20. ICIMOD’s MissionMission Enable sustainable mountain development for improved well being through knowledge and regional cooperation.
  21. 21. A Regional Organization 210 million people in the HKH 1.3 billion people downstreamRegional Member Countries: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, China, India, Myanmar, Nepal and Pakistan
  22. 22. Regional Programmes• Landscape transects / ecosystems• River Basins• Cryosphere• Adaptation to change / livelihoods• Regional data base / long term monitoring• Himalayan University Consortium** interdisciplinary work
  23. 23. ICIMOD Thematic Programs Data/ Remote Sensing/ GIS Knowledge Management (IKM) Water and Hazards (IWHM) Ecosystem Services (ECES) Livelihood Options (SLPR)
  24. 24. ICIMOD contributes to:1. Fill Knowledge Gaps2. Adapt to Change for Improved Livelihoods3. Collaborate across Borders4. Build Capacity5. Global Awareness and Exchange of Mountain Knowledge
  25. 25. Thank you
  26. 26. Operationalisation of mountain-specific MPI Educational background Education HH head Q2 Education School attendance No. of school-going children Q6 Quality of education Distance to next school Q4 Illness Frequency of illnesses Q8 Health Health care Reserves for health care Q9 Nutrition Food consumption Q51 Basic goods Non-food consumption Q52Poverty Living standard Assets Telephone/mobile owned Q59 Quality of dwelling Quality of walls Q11.1 Electricity Availability of electricity Q12.1 Access to basic Water Impr. source of drinking water Q14 facilities Sanitation Improved toilet facility Q13.1 Accessibility Access to facilities Distance to market centre Q4
  27. 27. Operationalization of Vulnerability Socio-demographic profile Dependency ratio Q1 Entitlement to resources Agricultural land per head Q22 Livelihood strategies Remittances per head Q54 Adaptive capacity Social networks No. of institut. which helped Q43 Accessibility Time to next market centre Q4 Coping strategies No. of adaptation strategies Q48 Wellbeing Per head consumption Q51, Q52 Health/sanitation Drinking water quality Q19Vulnerability Sensitivity Food security No. of month food suffficient Q49 Water security No. of month water sufficient Q17 Environmental fragility Quality of wall material Q11 Natural shocks No. of natural shocks Q42 Economic shocks No. of economic shocks Q42 Exposure Perception of climate variability Perc. change in temperature Q48 Climate variability Extreme temperature data n.a.
  28. 28. System to delineate pockets ofpoverty & vulnerability (PVAT results) 9 districts; 4 mtns; 3 hills; 2 terai Vulnerability (within districts) 3600 households Vulnerability Districts Food security (within districts) Multiple dimensions for determining pockets of poverty and vulnerability