Results of the assessment of sustainability in IFAD-supported projects - TANGO


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Results of the assessment of sustainability in IFAD-supported projects - TANGO

  1. 1. Enhancing Programme Sustainability Results of a Desk Review and Field Studies  Annual Annual Performance Review Workshop 1-4 March 2009 Bangkok, Thailand
  2. 2. Field Studies <ul><li>Philippines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Northern Mindinao Community Initiatives and Resource Management Project (NMCIREMP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cordillera Highland Agricultural Resource Management Project (CHARM) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Laos </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Oudomxai Community Initiatives Support Project (OCISP) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Vietnam </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decentralized Programme for Rural Poverty Reduction (DPPR – Quang Binh and Ha Giang) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>India </li></ul><ul><ul><li>North Eastern Region Community Resource Management Project for Upland Areas (NERCORMP) </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Multiple Dimensions of Sustainability <ul><li>Sustainability encompasses many aspects of a programme. It is therefore useful to think about different dimensions of sustainability, each of which is likely to be achieved at a different pace: </li></ul>Structural Change in Poverty Environmental Sustainability Household & Community Resilience Institutional Sustainability
  4. 4. Dimensions of Sustainability <ul><li>Institutional Sustainability - functional institutions that will be self-sustaining after the project ends </li></ul><ul><li>Household and Community Resilience - resilient communities can anticipate and adapt to change through clear decision-making processes, collaboration, participation, and management of resources </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Sustainability – Achieved when production systems are able to support sound livelihoods and at the same time maintain a stable resource base, avoid over-exploitation of renewable resources, maintain biodiversity, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Structural Change - addresses the structural dimensions of poverty through empowering poor and marginalized rural households. </li></ul>
  5. 5. IFAD Definition of Sustainability <ul><li>In its Strategic Framework 2007-2010, IFAD defines sustainability as: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Ensuring that the institutions supported through projects and the benefits realized are maintained and continue after the end of the project…” </li></ul>
  6. 6. Sustainability Factors <ul><li>Appropriate Development Models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Market-driven (DRRP, especially in Quang Binh) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Micro-credit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Agribusiness </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increase access to markets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community-driven (NERCORMP, OCISP, NMCIREMP) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fostering community-based groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Empowering disadvantaged groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Improving local production </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Sustainability Factors <ul><li>Design Elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Government and non-government institutional analyses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Also considers national policies, poverty reduction strategies, and capacities of local organizations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate balance between communities/beneficiaries and level-of-effort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainability correlated with amount of contact project has with institutions and beneficiaries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of risk analysis and risk management approach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What are local risks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How likely are they to occur </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What can be done to reduce risk or to minimize its impact </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Will IFAD activities increase risk…for whom…how much? </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Sustainability Factors <ul><ul><li>Development of clear exit strategies (sustainability strategies) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A number of CPEs have identified this as a major gap in IFAD programming </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Needs to be part of the design process </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Need specific criteria for graduation or exit, specific and measurable benchmarks, and a timeline for each sector or programmatic theme </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance of a strong country presence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporation of sustainability into supervisory mission TORs </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Sustainability Factors <ul><li>Implementation Elements </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fostering participatory approaches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remaining flexible in the face of a changing environment/circumstances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthening the capacity of stakeholders to plan and manage future actions </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Successful Elements - Philippines <ul><ul><li>Early Introduction of Sustainable Strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early involvement of communities in the project design </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Responding to expressed needs of communities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Little direct funding to communities early on…capacity building first </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collective decision-making </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid Thematic Assessments (NMCIREMP) on 13 programme elements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community Institutions and Participatory Development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SHGs, CIs, and LGUs (approx. 250) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of ‘big brother/big sister’ mentoring; Hierarchical arrangements </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Graduated responsibility and access to resources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of multiple pathways to sustainability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of well-developed organizational assessment tools </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity-building, linkage to service providers, periodic assessment and realignment </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Successful Elements - Laos <ul><ul><li>Maintenance of Rural Infrastructure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early strategy development on maintenance issues </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>User-fees for gravity-fed water systems have been successful </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provincial-level planning, contracting and oversight on rural roads </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of ‘Best Practices’ in Micro-finance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loans provided on a graduated scale </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loans linked to specific training opportunities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>VSCSs provided with matching funds after demonstrating capacity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of joint liability groups; women’s empowerment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Credit associations to be formed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable Design Elements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>High degree of participation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on economic transformation, income diversification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technically feasible livelihood alternatives </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Successful Elements - India <ul><ul><li>Design and Strategy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Did not rush to create outputs, but engaged in a slow, patient process of group formation to gain trust and encourage participation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Activities were always selected based on community priorities and implemented with significant local labor, materials, and sometimes even cash </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Resilience was addressed by diversifying incomes sources and building household and community assets </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Design modifications were allowed and an extension period was granted, in part to assure sustainability. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Specific Sectoral Challenges to Sustainability <ul><li>Environment and NRM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Often in conflict with other sector objectives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs clear link to livelihoods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Timing of anticipated change leads to unsustainable practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Helpful to couple with environmentally-friendly agricultural practices, such as green manure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Infrastructure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs more integration with other components (agricultural production and marketing, NRM, micro-finance) in a manner that supports HLS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Narrow focus on achievement of physical and financial targets often fails to promote community ownership </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensure demand-driven approaches through linkages with private markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strengthen capacity to support off-farm, agr-based enterprises </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Promote strategies for management of climate risk </li></ul></ul>