Nature’s anonymous donor:<br />The hidden contribution of forests to rural livelihoods <br />Frances Seymour<br />IFAD<br ...
Presentation outline<br /><ul><li>Brief introduction to CIFOR
Contributions of forests to rural livelihoods</li></ul>Wood, food, energy, health<br />Agricultural goods and services<br ...
 CIFOR…<br /><ul><li>an international organization headquartered in Bogor, Indonesia
a member of the CGIAR
purpose to conduct research to inform policies and practices that affect forests in developing countries
staff of about 200 globally
annual budget of about $27 million</li></li></ul><li>CIFOR’s vision<br />We envision a world where:<br /><ul><li>Forests a...
People recognize the value of forests for maintaining livelihoods and ecosystems
Decisions that influence forests and the people that depend on them are based on solid science and principles of good gove...
Contributions of forests to rural livelihoods<br />
Net change in forest area 2005-2010(13 million ha lost per year)<br />Source: FAO Forest Resource Assessment (FRA) 2010<br />
On average, households in forest communities derive 24% of their income from forests – not captured in national accounts<b...
40 study sites in 25 developing countries
Income and other socio-economic and environmental data, collected on a quarterly basis over a 12-month period
Majority of research carried out by 38 partners (mainly PhD students) from Asia, Africa & Latin America
Launch planned for June 15, 2011 in London</li></li></ul><li>Wood products<br /><ul><li>Local communities exploit forests ...
Ulin (ironwood) species identified by local communities in East Kalimantan as one of the most valued forest products</li><...
Fish are often the most important non-timber forest product, and fisheries depend on healthy forest ecosystems</li></li></...
Energy<br /><ul><li>Up to 80 percent of rural energy needs in sub-Saharan Africa are met by fuelwood and charcoal from for...
Access to medicinal plants
Disease control</li></li></ul><li>Employment<br />Research in Cameroon highlights the significance of the domestic timber ...
<ul><li>Forest-related employment also includes
Gathering non-timber forest products for sale
Household processing
Such employment is especially important for women, as it is compatible with other household responsibilities</li></li></ul...
Forests contain the preponderance of the Earth’s terrestrial biodiversity – including wild relatives of important crop spe...
Forests provide environmental services important to the agriculture sector, including hydrological regulation and pollinat...
CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees, and Agroforestry<br />
Conceptual framework<br />
1<br />Smallholder production systems and markets<br />Component<br />Research<br />themes<br /><ul><li>Enhancing manageme...
Increasing income generation and market integration for smallholders
Improving policy and institutions to enhance social assets to secure rights in forest- and tree-dependent communities</li>...
Women’s roles in NTFP value chains often invisible<br />Danger of marginalizing women’s roles in processing through interv...
2<br />Management and conservation of forest and tree resources<br />Component<br />Research<br />themes<br /><ul><li>Unde...
Conserving and characterizing high-quality germplasm of important tree crops and their wild relatives
Developing improved silvicultural, monitoring and management practices for multiple use
Developing tools and methods to resolve conflicts over distribution of benefits and resource rights</li></li></ul><li>Cert...
Beyond timber<br />	CIFOR research on the potential of multiple-use management focuses on barriers to integration of timbe...
3<br />Environmental services and landscape management<br />Component<br />Research<br />themes<br /><ul><li>Understanding...
Understanding the consequences of forest transition for environmental services and livelihoods
Learning landscapes: dynamics of multi-functionality</li></li></ul><li>Payments for Environmental Services<br />CIFOR anal...
Tenure<br /><ul><li>Research shows that strengthening community rights to forests can lead to “win-win” outcomes:
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Nature’s anonymous donor: The hidden contribution of forests to rural livelihoods

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  • Forests are now receiving a level of attention that we haven’t seen for many years, if ever. Foremost among a number of reasons for this is the fact that forests are now centre stage in the global debate on climate change. Over the last couple of years the world has come to the realisation that curbing forest loss is a critical and cost-effective way to mitigate global warming. And yet, on the other hand, new forces continue to drive deforestation and degradation. For example, the promotion of biofuels as a solution to global warming is driving land conversion to crops such as soy bean or oil palm, while food shortages are placing even greater pressure on forests for conversion to rice, grain and other food crops. Then there’s China and its rapid economic growth literally changing the face of timber supply and demand, while the continuing globalisation of trade and decentralization of forest management are also changing the way forests are being used.
  • In 2006 CIFOR’s Board and Management began a process of developing a new 10 year strategy, in order to better respond to current and future challenges, and remain a relevant source of timely analysis and knowledge on tropical forests and the people who depend on them. After two years of internal debate and external consultation we are confident that the new strategy has positioned CIFOR in such a way as to ensure our research is not only relevant, timely and accurate, but that it reaches the right people in order to have a genuine impact. The new strategy provides significant continuity with the past and retains our core purpose, which is to advance human well-being, environmental conservation, and equity. But in doing so it also addresses new challenges – such as climate change and the dramatic rise of forest-related trade and investment – that now characterize the literal and figurative landscape in which we work. Tomaximisethe likelihood of success in translating research into impact, the strategy focuses CIFOR’s research on six research “domains”.
  • Source: http://bornfree.wildlifedirect.org/files/2009/01/poacher-displaying-piece-of-bushmeat.jpg
  • Nature’s anonymous donor: The hidden contribution of forests to rural livelihoods

    1. 1. Nature’s anonymous donor:<br />The hidden contribution of forests to rural livelihoods <br />Frances Seymour<br />IFAD<br />March 4, 2011<br />
    2. 2. Presentation outline<br /><ul><li>Brief introduction to CIFOR
    3. 3. Contributions of forests to rural livelihoods</li></ul>Wood, food, energy, health<br />Agricultural goods and services<br />Employment<br /><ul><li>CRP6: A framework for exploiting opportunities and managing risk</li></li></ul><li>Brief introduction to CIFOR<br />
    4. 4. CIFOR…<br /><ul><li>an international organization headquartered in Bogor, Indonesia
    5. 5. a member of the CGIAR
    6. 6. purpose to conduct research to inform policies and practices that affect forests in developing countries
    7. 7. staff of about 200 globally
    8. 8. annual budget of about $27 million</li></li></ul><li>CIFOR’s vision<br />We envision a world where:<br /><ul><li>Forests are high on the political agenda
    9. 9. People recognize the value of forests for maintaining livelihoods and ecosystems
    10. 10. Decisions that influence forests and the people that depend on them are based on solid science and principles of good governance, and reflect the perspectives of developing countries and forest-dependent people</li></li></ul><li>CIFOR’s research domains<br />1<br />Enhancing the role of forests in mitigating climate change<br />2<br />Enhancing the role of forests in adapting to climate change<br />Improving livelihoods through smallholder and community forestry<br />3<br />Managing trade-offs between conservation and development at the landscape scale<br />4<br />Managing impacts of globalised trade and investment on forests and forest communities<br />5<br />6<br />Sustainably managing tropical production forests<br />
    11. 11. Contributions of forests to rural livelihoods<br />
    12. 12. Net change in forest area 2005-2010(13 million ha lost per year)<br />Source: FAO Forest Resource Assessment (FRA) 2010<br />
    13. 13. On average, households in forest communities derive 24% of their income from forests – not captured in national accounts<br /><ul><li>CIFOR’s Poverty and Environment Network study of forest-based contributions to incomes in more than 8,000 households
    14. 14. 40 study sites in 25 developing countries
    15. 15. Income and other socio-economic and environmental data, collected on a quarterly basis over a 12-month period
    16. 16. Majority of research carried out by 38 partners (mainly PhD students) from Asia, Africa & Latin America
    17. 17. Launch planned for June 15, 2011 in London</li></li></ul><li>Wood products<br /><ul><li>Local communities exploit forests for construction timber, poles, boats, tools, baskets, and many other uses
    18. 18. Ulin (ironwood) species identified by local communities in East Kalimantan as one of the most valued forest products</li></li></ul><li>Food<br /><ul><li>Forests provide wild fruits, honey, mushrooms, tubers, grubs, and many other diet supplements
    19. 19. Fish are often the most important non-timber forest product, and fisheries depend on healthy forest ecosystems</li></li></ul><li>Bushmeat can constitute up to 80% of the protein and fat in the diets of households in rural areas of Central Africa<br />Research suggests importance of bushmeat to AIDS orphans in Southern Africa<br />
    20. 20. Energy<br /><ul><li>Up to 80 percent of rural energy needs in sub-Saharan Africa are met by fuelwood and charcoal from forests</li></li></ul><li>Health<br />Forests provide:<br /><ul><li>Access to nutritious food
    21. 21. Access to medicinal plants
    22. 22. Disease control</li></li></ul><li>Employment<br />Research in Cameroon highlights the significance of the domestic timber sector<br />Some 45,000 people derive income from the sector<br />
    23. 23. <ul><li>Forest-related employment also includes
    24. 24. Gathering non-timber forest products for sale
    25. 25. Household processing
    26. 26. Such employment is especially important for women, as it is compatible with other household responsibilities</li></li></ul><li>Goods and services to agriculture<br /><ul><li>Forests and trees on farms provide fodder and enhance soil fertility
    27. 27. Forests contain the preponderance of the Earth’s terrestrial biodiversity – including wild relatives of important crop species
    28. 28. Forests provide environmental services important to the agriculture sector, including hydrological regulation and pollination</li></li></ul><li>CRP6: A framework for exploiting opportunities and managing risk<br />
    29. 29. CGIAR Research Program on Forests, Trees, and Agroforestry<br />
    30. 30. Conceptual framework<br />
    31. 31. 1<br />Smallholder production systems and markets<br />Component<br />Research<br />themes<br /><ul><li>Enhancing management and production systems for smallholders (food security and nutrition)
    32. 32. Increasing income generation and market integration for smallholders
    33. 33. Improving policy and institutions to enhance social assets to secure rights in forest- and tree-dependent communities</li></li></ul><li>Research suggests significant potential to increase the share of value captured by small producers of timber and NTFPs<br />Example: Teak producers in Java need <br />better information on market requirements, and<br /> access to financial services <br />Support to small-scale producers<br />
    34. 34. Women’s roles in NTFP value chains often invisible<br />Danger of marginalizing women’s roles in processing through interventions focused on streamlining production and marketing<br />
    35. 35. 2<br />Management and conservation of forest and tree resources<br />Component<br />Research<br />themes<br /><ul><li>Understanding threats to important tree species and formulating genetic conservation strategies
    36. 36. Conserving and characterizing high-quality germplasm of important tree crops and their wild relatives
    37. 37. Developing improved silvicultural, monitoring and management practices for multiple use
    38. 38. Developing tools and methods to resolve conflicts over distribution of benefits and resource rights</li></li></ul><li>Certification<br /> CIFOR assisted the Forestry Stewardship Council’s efforts to refine FSC certification standards for small-scale operations with prospective application in Brazil, Cameroon, and Mexico. <br />
    39. 39. Beyond timber<br /> CIFOR research on the potential of multiple-use management focuses on barriers to integration of timber and Brazil nut production in the Western Amazon.<br />
    40. 40. 3<br />Environmental services and landscape management<br />Component<br />Research<br />themes<br /><ul><li>Understanding drivers of forest transition
    41. 41. Understanding the consequences of forest transition for environmental services and livelihoods
    42. 42. Learning landscapes: dynamics of multi-functionality</li></li></ul><li>Payments for Environmental Services<br />CIFOR analysis reveals tenure constraints to PES-based approaches to forest conservation in Brazil.<br />Bottleneck: Land tenure “chaos”<br />Competitiveness of REDD supply<br />Legend<br />Unknown tenure 53%<br />Indigenous lands 9%<br />Agricultural settlements 10%<br />PA for sustainable use 9%<br />Community lands <1%<br />Registered properties 1%<br />Cities<br />Roads<br />State limits<br />Water<br />Sources: IBAMA, INCRA 2007, Soares-Filho et al. 2006<br />
    43. 43. Tenure<br /><ul><li>Research shows that strengthening community rights to forests can lead to “win-win” outcomes:
    44. 44. improved forest condition
    45. 45. enhanced local incomes</li></li></ul><li>However, research also shows that communities require: <br />Support to defend their new rights, and to mobilize forest resource assets to generate income; and<br />Relief from unnecessary regulatory burdens<br />
    46. 46. 4<br />Climate change adaptation and mitigation<br />Component<br />Research<br />themes<br /><ul><li>Harnessing forests, trees and agroforestry for climate change mitigation
    47. 47. Enhancing climate change adaptation
    48. 48. Understanding synergies between climate change mitigation and adaptation</li></li></ul><li>Risks and opportunities<br /><ul><li>Deforestation and land use change contribute 12–18% of the world’s total annual carbon emissions
    49. 49. REDD+ could provide channel significant revenue flows to rural communities
    50. 50. Forests themselves are threatened by climate change
    51. 51. Forests provide an important source of resilience for adaptation to climate change</li></li></ul><li>Learning from REDD: A global comparative analysis<br /> CIFOR research input to the Indonesia – Norway Letter of Intent on REDD<br />
    52. 52. Ecosystem-based adaptation<br />Joint CIFOR-CATIE research on tropical forests and climate change adaptation in Honduras influenced the design of one of the first projects ever approved by the UNFCCC’s Adaptation Fund Board.<br />
    53. 53. 5<br />Impacts of trade and investment on forests and people<br />Component<br />Research<br />themes<br /><ul><li>Understanding the processes and impacts of forest-related trade and investment
    54. 54. Enhancing responses and policy options to mitigate the negative impacts and enhance the positive impacts of trade and investment</li></li></ul><li>Trade and investment<br /> CIFOR research on the implications of biofuel expansion on forests and forest communities<br />
    55. 55. Law enforcement <br />CIFOR research highlighted danger of local communities losing livelihood from crackdowns targeting “the little guy with the chainsaw”<br />
    56. 56. Cross cutting themes: Gender<br />Approach:<br />Gender disaggregated data collection and analysis<br />Gender appropriate research methods<br />Partnerships with key organizations to build capacity & share knowledge<br />Example of research:<br />CIFOR study on barriers to women’s participation in forest decision-making and benefit-sharing in Nicaragua and Uganda<br />
    57. 57. Cross-cutting approach:Sentinel Landscapes<br /><ul><li>Follows key recommendation from the 2009 social science “stripe” review commissioned by the CGIAR Science Council
    58. 58. Builds on the CGIAR’s comparative advantage to conduct long-term, comparative research
    59. 59. Generates data about the drivers and impacts of land use change, as well as approaches to threats and benefits for environmental resilience and the poor
    60. 60. Integrates research and impact pathways to exploit potential synergies across all CRP6 components</li></li></ul><li>International, national and local partnerships<br />
    61. 61. Communications and knowledge sharing<br /> “Hurricane” model enabled by increased connectivity<br />
    62. 62. Impact pathway example:<br />climate change<br />
    63. 63. http://www.cifor.cgiar.org/crp6/<br />

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