Conference onNew Directions for Smallholder Agriculture   GORDON CONWAY,   Imperial College, London   On Being a Smallhold...
North Borneo (Sabah)
Smallholders ‐ under 2 ha               400 – 500 million               smallholders               2 billion people       ...
3 Facts• the size of land holdings is falling, with the   fastest decline in Africa.• land and water are deteriorating and...
The Virtuous Circle• As agriculture develops – greater yields and production of  subsistence and cash crops – smallholders...
A Javanese Home Garden
Labour Productivity in Agriculture        US $ per worker
brazilrealestate.catenaecastro.com.br
Mrs.  NamarundaA single mother   farming a   hillside inwestern Kenya
An Insecure Farm3                         Weeds                             Pests2                                 Drought...
Appropriate Technologies• They are productive; in particular they   generate high levels of income• The production they ge...
Traditional Technologies
Breeding and growing Land racesInternational Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
Treadle pump and drip irrigation
Rasike Farm, Chililila WG. MBILI maize-soyabean                                 intercrop providing 1215 kg maize and 545 ...
sing in          NigerMicrodosing in Niger
Controlling Striga          • 2.4 m ha          • $380m loss          • Maize resistant to             Imazapyr          •...
New Platform Technologies      NanotechnologiesInformation and Communication          Technologies  Global Information Sys...
BT Cotton in Burkina Faso ISAA.org
A Secure Farm3                     Weeds                               Insects &                               diseases   ...
New Seeds
Agrodealers
Incentives for Adoption• Land Reform• Output Markets• Insurance
Land Reform in Rwandahttp://www.livelihoodsrc.dfid.gov.uk/uploads/File/Ebulletins/Issue%203%20December%202007.pdf
Cereal Bank in Western Kenya
Temperature                  and rainfall                  projections,                 1980 to 1999                versus...
The AtlasMountains
Argan Oil   andEuphorbia   Honey
Nwadjahane, Southern Mozambique                                   Increasingly frequent and                               ...
In many places extreme events (e.g. droughts and floods) will occur with   greater frequency and intensity      How do we ...
Goddard GHCN_GISS_HR2SST_1200km                              _Anom07_2010_2010_1951_1980Russia and Pakistan 2010         L...
Where are the Greenhouse Gases         coming from?
Agriculture’s Greenhouse Gases• CO2 – deforestation, loss of soil carbon• Methane – flooded rice, enteric   fermentation i...
Win-win SolutionsConservation Farming in Zimbabwe                     Ploughed                  3 years minimum
2-4 tonnes C/ha
Going to Scale – Some principles• The private sector is key• In most cases there has to be a public‐private partnership. •...
A Comprehensive FrameworkEnabling national governments in  partnerships with aid agencies, NGOs  and the private sector, t...
Gordon Conway: On Being a Smallholder
Gordon Conway: On Being a Smallholder
Gordon Conway: On Being a Smallholder
Gordon Conway: On Being a Smallholder
Gordon Conway: On Being a Smallholder
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Gordon Conway: On Being a Smallholder

  1. 1. Conference onNew Directions for Smallholder Agriculture GORDON CONWAY, Imperial College, London On Being a Smallholder Jan 24 2011
  2. 2. North Borneo (Sabah)
  3. 3. Smallholders ‐ under 2 ha 400 – 500 million smallholders 2 billion people 33 million in Africa 80% of farms in Africa
  4. 4. 3 Facts• the size of land holdings is falling, with the  fastest decline in Africa.• land and water are deteriorating and becoming  scarce• smallholdings remain of primary importance not  only to agriculture but to rural development
  5. 5. The Virtuous Circle• As agriculture develops – greater yields and production of subsistence and cash crops – smallholders become more prosperous. The landless also benefit through wage labour. Chronic hunger decreases.• The rural economy also grows – through the creation of small rural businesses ‐ providing more employment and improved rural facilities, especially schools and health clinics. Roads and markets develop. The rural economy connects to the urban economy and to the growing industrial sector.• Free trade provides opportunities for greater imports and exports. High value agricultural exports accelerate agricultural development, further intensifying the virtuous circle.
  6. 6. A Javanese Home Garden
  7. 7. Labour Productivity in Agriculture US $ per worker
  8. 8. brazilrealestate.catenaecastro.com.br
  9. 9. Mrs. NamarundaA single mother farming a hillside inwestern Kenya
  10. 10. An Insecure Farm3 Weeds Pests2 Drought Survival line1 1 2 3 4 Months
  11. 11. Appropriate Technologies• They are productive; in particular they  generate high levels of income• The production they generate is stable and  resilient• They are readily accessible and affordable. • They do not have significant environmental  or human health downsides
  12. 12. Traditional Technologies
  13. 13. Breeding and growing Land racesInternational Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture
  14. 14. Treadle pump and drip irrigation
  15. 15. Rasike Farm, Chililila WG. MBILI maize-soyabean intercrop providing 1215 kg maize and 545 kg soyabean per ha when conventional intercrops failed. These results indicate that MBILI is a means toward greater food security.Wamalwa Farm, Siritanyi FFS, Kanduyi.Maize-groundnut intercrop providing 5330kg maize and 1203 kg groundnut per ha.These results indicate that MBILI canproduce significant food surpluses.
  16. 16. sing in  NigerMicrodosing in Niger
  17. 17. Controlling Striga • 2.4 m ha • $380m loss • Maize resistant to  Imazapyr • Coat seed, herbicide  kills Striga • BASF, Weismann.  CIMMYT, IITA, NARS,  NGOs
  18. 18. New Platform Technologies NanotechnologiesInformation and Communication  Technologies Global Information Systems Biotechnologies
  19. 19. BT Cotton in Burkina Faso ISAA.org
  20. 20. A Secure Farm3 Weeds Insects & diseases Soil Drough Fertility t2 >2 t/ha Resilient Crops Actual harvest Survival line1 1 2 3 4 Months
  21. 21. New Seeds
  22. 22. Agrodealers
  23. 23. Incentives for Adoption• Land Reform• Output Markets• Insurance
  24. 24. Land Reform in Rwandahttp://www.livelihoodsrc.dfid.gov.uk/uploads/File/Ebulletins/Issue%203%20December%202007.pdf
  25. 25. Cereal Bank in Western Kenya
  26. 26. Temperature  and rainfall  projections,  1980 to 1999  versus 2080 to  2099scenario A1B
  27. 27. The AtlasMountains
  28. 28. Argan Oil andEuphorbia  Honey
  29. 29. Nwadjahane, Southern Mozambique Increasingly frequent and severe droughts, floods, and storms Fertile lowlands good crops but can be destroyed during floodEduardo Highlands good crops ofMondlane maize and cassava duringhttp://www.geog.ox.ac.uk/researc flood years, but lessh/landscape/projects/adaptiv... productive otherwise
  30. 30. In many places extreme events (e.g. droughts and floods) will occur with greater frequency and intensity How do we build Resilient Livelihoods?
  31. 31. Goddard GHCN_GISS_HR2SST_1200km _Anom07_2010_2010_1951_1980Russia and Pakistan 2010 Logistics cluster, Islamabad
  32. 32. Where are the Greenhouse Gases coming from?
  33. 33. Agriculture’s Greenhouse Gases• CO2 – deforestation, loss of soil carbon• Methane – flooded rice, enteric  fermentation in cattle• Nitrous Oxide – microbial  transformation of nitrogen in soils and  manures
  34. 34. Win-win SolutionsConservation Farming in Zimbabwe Ploughed 3 years minimum
  35. 35. 2-4 tonnes C/ha
  36. 36. Going to Scale – Some principles• The private sector is key• In most cases there has to be a public‐private partnership. • Each value chain is likely to be different. • The value added needs to be biased to the lower levels of  the value chain to achieve better equity. • There is likely to be a significant role for farmer  associations• much of the success depends on the details of the  pathways, processes and deals between the partners that  are struck.  •
  37. 37. A Comprehensive FrameworkEnabling national governments in  partnerships with aid agencies, NGOs  and the private sector, to help  smallholders achieve food security for  themselves and their communities and  at the same time sustainably increase  their incomes

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