Beyond ‘Business as usual’ – transformative approaches for closing gender gaps


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  • SOFA through the evidence it provided has had significant influence in catapulting gender back into the center-stage in ag R and D. Research and development programs often assume that access to resources leads to control or that higher income is transformative. It is not always true. It depends on social norms and agency of men and women. Not sure how many in the ag R and D field have seen or read this other report.
  • Results from the WorldBank study across 20 countries.
  • I might take out the sub-bullets under the three questions and just talk to the slide..
  • Taking the example of the Barotse value chain initiative, we would like to illustrate how social norms and beliefs restrict livelihood choices of women. There might be more remunerative livelihood options which they might want to and can pursue, but are constrained by the norms.
  • I will change this and try to make it more readable – but this is our outcome logic model for various sets of actors for GTA. Just to demonstrate that this intervention operates at multiple scales and we need behavioural change outcomes in more than just communities to get the dev outcomes and impacts we want.
  • Methodological frameworks and tools for conceptualization, contextualization, design, implementation and evaluation Capacity – developing a cap dev and org change approach Communication – key challenge – both internally and externally – developing a strategy Partnerships – key to all above + for scaling up and out – looking for expertise to work with at global and local levels
  • Beyond ‘Business as usual’ – transformative approaches for closing gender gaps

    1. 1. Beyond ‘Business as usual’ – transformative approaches for closing gender gaps Ranjitha Puskur 12th July 2013, Rome
    2. 2. Overview • AAS rationale • Our focus • Gender transformative RinD
    3. 3. AAS Rationale
    4. 4. Aquatic Agricultural Systems Systems and livelihoods – not commodities
    5. 5. Integrated Agricultural Systems Sustainability & scale
    6. 6. Rural poverty Number of rural poor (millions) (<US$1.25 per day) “… there are serious and growing threats to the productivity and resilience of the Green Revolution lands. Equitability has also been low. The larger landowners have reaped most of the benefits, while the poor and landless have missed out.” (Conway 2012)
    7. 7. Our focus
    8. 8. MekongMekong The Coral Triangle GBM*GBM* ZambeziZambezi Population living on <$1.25/day, per grid cell (resolution : 9 km at the equator) NigerNiger Lakes Victoria -Kyoga Lakes Victoria -Kyoga Source of poverty map: CGIAR SRF Domain Analysis Spatial Team (2009) *GBM: Ganges-Brahmaputra- Megna delta (where learning from Coral Triangle will be scaled out) South Pacific Community African Inland Asia mega deltas • High numbers of poor and/or High % of total population dependent on AAS • High vulnerability to change (climate/sea level/water) • Potential to scale out Geographical Focus African Coastal
    9. 9. People using AAS System Area (km²) People <US$1.25/day Africa – f’water 800,000 70m 43m Africa - coastal 300,000 12m 7m Asian Deltas 50,000 100m 40m Islands SEA + Pfc 650,000 54m 22m 236m 112m Source: Bené & Teoh, in prep.
    10. 10. The RinD Approach: Programmatic Theory of Change
    11. 11. Countries and hubs
    12. 12. Our research agenda Gender transformative approachesGender transformative approaches
    13. 13. Integrated themes: Gender Health & Nutrition Learning/Sharing/Communication Engagement & Empowerment Effective Partnerships High potential NRM value chains Fish Aquatic Plants Farm productivity & diversification Diversified farming systems Dietary diversification Baseline studies Ecosystem services Agrobiodiversity Agric. Knowledge + info systems Governance High potential agric. value chains Cattle Rice HUB strategic initiatives Flood risk management Gender transformative approach Awareness + communication in schools Canal management Program operations Governance Management Communications Capacity building for implementation Community level initiatives Barotse Hub, Zambia
    14. 14. Research Themes • Sustainable increases in productivity • Improved access to markets • Strengthened resilience and adaptive capacity • Enhanced gender equality in access to and control of resources and decision making • Improved policies and institutions • Scaling up (knowledge sharing and learning)
    15. 15. Gender transformative RinD
    16. 16. Gender gaps in Agriculture • Sticky gaps • Raises big questions…how to close this gap? Is ‘closing the gap’ enough to lead to lasting, positive development outcomes? • Consequences of inequality being addressed, but not
    17. 17. Gender equality and Economic growth • Asymmetrical relationship • More consistent and robust evidence that gender equality contributes to economic growth – less the other way (Kabeer and Natali 2013) • Interrelationships too weak to be self-sustaining (Duflo 2011)
    18. 18. Closing gender gaps Economic empowerment Changes in social norms and attitudes Need a two- pronged approach to push both the levers Sustainable ? Inter- generational ? Wider impacts?
    19. 19. Key features of Gender Transformative Approach in AAS • Integrates transformative interventions with agricultural systems interventions • Understands people and social diversity in their context • Engages with both women and men • Enables critical learning, reflection & questioning • Dynamic & iterative • Multi-scale
    20. 20. Impact Pathway Gender and development analysis, methods and tools focused on AAS development challenges Analysis, tools and methods used to design and implement gender transformative RinD strategies and interventions in AAS Changes in gender roles and norms Increased access to assets, resources, knowledge, skills, social networks, markets and services Equity enabling policies and institutions Improved range and quality of life choices Control of decision-making Enhanced engagement in markets Enhanced benefits from use of assets, resources Gender equitable systems and structures Higher participation and leadership in community initiatives Reduced poverty Increased food security Improved nutrition Sustainable NRM Research outputs Research outcomes Development outcomes SLOs
    21. 21. AAS Gender Research Agenda • How do social norms and gender relations influence agricultural development outcomes for marginalized social groups? – In-depth social and gender analysis • What combinations of technical and transformative interventions foster gender transformative change in different contexts? – Design of technical + transformative interventions based on the analysis and Participatory development of Theories of change – Integration of transformative interventions in Participatory Action Research under various initiatives in program – Systematic testing of combinations of interventions • How do these transformative changes contribute to agricultural development outcomes like poverty reduction, food and nutrition security? – Development of metrics to evaluate transformative change and its
    22. 22. Some transformative change mechanisms • Household approaches (SIDA, IFAD) • Behavioural change communication and African Transformation Methodology (Johns Hopkins University) • Working with faith leaders (Channels of Hope – World Vision) • Learning from Dimitra project on gender in communication for development (FAO) • Gender Equity Movement in Schools (GEMS – ICRW) • Collective action and networks
    23. 23. Generating evidence to demonstrate contributions • Theory-based and participatory designs – understanding if and how change happened • Qualitative comparative and quasi-experimental designs will be woven in as appropriate – to understand if and why the transformative approaches are better and generate evidence base to scale out – Context-specific treatments identified based on the results of social and gender analysis Examples: • In Barotse Flood Plain, Zambia -African Transformation methodology with randomly selected PAR groups -Applying for WorldBank Gender innovation Lab funding • In Bangladesh, where Feed the Future Program is operating -Feed The Future, with GTA integrated in some communities - Feed the Future, regular
    24. 24. An example - Livelihood choices, gender roles and associated norms in Barotse Flood Plain, Zambia Fish value chains •Men fish using nets in deep waters and women using baskets in shallow waters and when floods recede •Women mainly engaged in selling fish without any value addition – Women do not use nets as they are heavy and difficult for them to handle and, going into deep waters is dangerous. – ‘If a women fishes with a net, she cannot give birth.’ – ‘Bible stipulates the different roles of men and women and there is no need for change in gender division of labour.’ – ‘Ladies come from the rib of the man and cannot consider themselves to be equals.’ – Men and women take up roles based on knowledge/awareness/training which they received as children • Girls learn from their mothers and boys from their fathers
    25. 25. Cultures and norms are not static! • Significant changes in norms and acceptance of women going out fishing into deep waters and at nights with their husbands – ‘Women paddling is not a bad omen anymore.’ – ‘A good wife these days is someone who can earn some money to take care of the family’. • Men and women in village with multiple NGOs operating seemed to be more open and accepting of changes in social norms • Increasing awareness of importance of education for girls – most girls go to school now
    26. 26. Main actor groups Practice changesKAS changes needed • Gender analysis integrated into RinD process • Gender analysis used to inform RinD design, conduct, analysis and M&E • Gender-conscious outputs and communication content / techniques • Implement programs using GTAs • Become active acceptors of gender integration & analysis (ie. actively seek ways of integrating gender concerns into R&D) • Develop skills to integrate gender into RinD programs RinD collaborators - Government orgs - NGOs - Research institutions - Private sector - Media • Gender analysis integrated into research process with adequate resources allocated • Gender analysis + transformative approach used to inform research design, conduct, analysis, outputs and M&E • Become active acceptors of gender integration & analysis (ie. actively seek ways of integrating gender concerns into research) • Develop skills to integrate gender into RinD programs AAS Internal - Implementing teams - PLT + POP • Accepting a wider range and quality of life choices for men and women (including changes in the roles and responsibilities within households and communities). • Joint decision-making in households and communities. • Owing and controlling a wider range of resources and assets by women and other marginalized groups • Understanding and appreciating that gender equality can be win-win • Increased awareness and acceptance of alternative gender roles • Overcoming fears of changing norms and roles • Gaining confidence in exercising alternative behaviours and practices • Developing communication and negotiation skills • Communities • - Different social groups • - Opinion leaders Research to influence - Government / policy decision-makers - Politicians - Donors - Private sector -Media -NGOs • Become active acceptors of relevance of gender equality to programs, policy, achieving dev and other goals • Decrease fears of acting to change norms • Increased understanding of gender • Change policies / institutions / legal arrangements / regulations • Allocate sufficient funding for gender transformative programs • Acknowledge and reward value of both men and women in industry • Change media portrayals of gender roles • Adopt GTA as std practice (NGOs) •Instigate organizational change processes •Capacity-building programs •Provide expertise and input to research, or direct to resources that can provide these Program action •Incentivize organizational change processes •Capacity-building programs •Provide technical advice on implementing a gender transformative approach •Persuasive communication of gender research motivation, approach and outputs • Generate and communicate evidence of effects of GTAs •Partnerships with local policy advocacy groups •Portraying alternative gender roles / Demonstrating positive deviance • Social media and behavioural change communication initiatives •Household and gender relations approaches
    27. 27. Translating the approach into action – what are key elements?