Genetic tools and knowledge for cassava productivity and special uses<br />What is the status of cassava production and ho...
Weeds<br />Degradedsoils<br />Fundamental for food security<br />Intercropping<br />Lowfertility<br />Lowbutstableyields<b...
Development of managementpackages and new varietiesforhigh and efficientproductivity has a history of almost 40 years in I...
Fundamental for income generation and rural development<br />Well managed cassava<br />Commercialplanting in sub-humidcond...
1.	Status of technology<br />Applied breeding techniques well established<br />Flow of improved varieties for many regions...
Global yield trends (t/ha) for cassava<br />Source: FAOSTAT<br />
Yield trends (t/ha) in six cassava-producing countries<br />
Yield trends - overview<br /><ul><li>Cassava is rapidly diverging into a traditional crop for food security and an industr...
However . . . <br />Many people believed that by the 90s, national programs would be able to take over most breeding funct...
Emerging problems for Cassava in Asia: <br />The need for continued vigilance<br />New Cassava pests and diseases<br /><ul...
Whitefly
Otherdiseases</li></li></ul><li>Critical contributions of the Americas<br />Diversity of cultivated cassava<br />Diversity...
New challenges: Impact of climate change oncassavasuitable environments<br />Global cassava suitability will increase<br /...
2.	Lessons learnedAn overview<br />Sustained investment in research pays off<br />+/-  20-year lag between initial researc...
3. Where to from here?<br />What do we want to be able to offer in the next 20 years?<br /> to growers<br /> to processors...
3. What growers need<br />High yield potential in a wide range of environments<br />Effective management of biotic and abi...
   Efficient propagation systems
   Root traits with a ready market</li></li></ul><li>3. What processors and consumers need<br />Year-round access to a uni...
4. How are we going to get there?Challenges and Opportunities<br />
4. How are we going to get there?Challenges and Opportunities for the research community <br />“Africa has only 70 scienti...
4. How are we going to get there?Challenges and Opportunities for the research community <br />Serious decline in funding ...
4. How are we going to get there?Challengesand Opportunitiesfor the research community <br />Train young staff with advanc...
Research efforts to increase cassava productivity<br />Genebanks: The principal resource for breeding<br />
Cassava Biodiversity<br />Wild Manihot species are unique sources of genes that could be used through breeding with marker...
Cassava Genomics Tools<br />Mapping Tools<br /><ul><li>Several mapping populations linked to breeding
~ 450SSRS, 301 AFLP-RFLPs, 17 Genes
MAS for CMD and Post Harvest Deterioration
New gene based microsatellite markers identified at CIAT (1391) in 2008 and at USDA –IITA (846) in 2009
SNP markers being developed at CIAT, U. Arizona, U. Maryland and U. Pretoria</li></ul>BAC Libraries<br /><ul><li>3 librari...
Deposited at Clemson Genome Center
Used so far by CIAT and EMBRAPA</li></li></ul><li>Cost of whole genome sequencingView in 2009<br />1995<br />10,000,000,00...
4.	 The way forward<br />Organizational<br />Technical<br />
4.	Organizational <br />Move from project mode to integrated programmode for core activities (basic breeding, agronomy, pe...
4. Technical <br />Breeding capacity<br />Phenotypic characterization<br />Access to genomics facilities<br />Bioinformati...
Reducing costs<br />Access to technologies<br />Accelerate breeding<br />Integration with germplasm banks<br />Integration...
Breeding can be made much more efficient , but . . . <br />The need for multi-location, multi-year advanced testing (3 yrs...
Traits for added value<br />
<ul><li>Farmers produce cassava with 30% added value.
Stronger market demand</li></ul>7.8<br />5.8<br />4.8<br />4.0<br />Crude protein content (%) DM basis<br />3.2<br />2.6<...
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Session 3.1 Review of Genetic Tools and Knowledge that could Contribute to Cassava Productivity and to Special Uses: Fuel, Food, Industrial Starches and Feed by Clair Hershey, FAO

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Session 3.1 Review of Genetic Tools and Knowledge that could Contribute to Cassava Productivity and to Special Uses: Fuel, Food, Industrial Starches and Feed by Clair Hershey, FAO

  1. 1.
  2. 2. Genetic tools and knowledge for cassava productivity and special uses<br />What is the status of cassava production and how did we get here?<br />Lessons learned along the way<br />Where do we want to go from here?<br />What are the tools, knowledge and systems that we going to employ to get us there?<br />
  3. 3. Weeds<br />Degradedsoils<br />Fundamental for food security<br />Intercropping<br />Lowfertility<br />Lowbutstableyields<br />Traditional cultivation<br />
  4. 4. Development of managementpackages and new varietiesforhigh and efficientproductivity has a history of almost 40 years in IARCs and longer in some NARS<br />Management <br />+<br />Genetic Improvement<br />
  5. 5. Fundamental for income generation and rural development<br />Well managed cassava<br />Commercialplanting in sub-humidconditions<br />Commercialplanting in acidsoils<br />
  6. 6. 1. Status of technology<br />Applied breeding techniques well established<br />Flow of improved varieties for many regions and markets<br />Optimum management packages (soils/agronomy) defined for many regions and systems<br />Steady yield increases in many countries<br />Molecular tools advancing rapidly<br />
  7. 7. Global yield trends (t/ha) for cassava<br />Source: FAOSTAT<br />
  8. 8. Yield trends (t/ha) in six cassava-producing countries<br />
  9. 9. Yield trends - overview<br /><ul><li>Cassava is rapidly diverging into a traditional crop for food security and an industrial crop</li></ul>30-40 t/ha is possible under very good management in many environments<br />70-80 t/ha is possible in exceptional conditions<br />
  10. 10. However . . . <br />Many people believed that by the 90s, national programs would be able to take over most breeding functions and IARCs could focus on upstream and strategic research; trait discovery for deployment by NARS.<br />By the mid 90s, the effects of cutbacksin the system were becoming evident<br />
  11. 11. Emerging problems for Cassava in Asia: <br />The need for continued vigilance<br />New Cassava pests and diseases<br /><ul><li>Mealy bug
  12. 12. Whitefly
  13. 13. Otherdiseases</li></li></ul><li>Critical contributions of the Americas<br />Diversity of cultivated cassava<br />Diversity of wild species<br />Diversity of pests and diseases<br />Diversity of bio-control agents<br />
  14. 14. New challenges: Impact of climate change oncassavasuitable environments<br />Global cassava suitability will increase<br />5.1% on average by 2050… but many major areas of current production suffer negative impacts<br />Source: A. Jarvis, CIAT<br />
  15. 15. 2. Lessons learnedAn overview<br />Sustained investment in research pays off<br />+/- 20-year lag between initial research investment and substantial returns for breeding + management technology<br />Genetic improvement and management contribute more or less equally to yield gains<br />Integration of production and market demand<br /> . . . markets drive intensified management<br />Most countries are not anywhere close to yield potential<br />There is no status quo – the world evolves and research efforts need to keep up<br />
  16. 16. 3. Where to from here?<br />What do we want to be able to offer in the next 20 years?<br /> to growers<br /> to processors and consumers<br />What do research organizations need to do to deliver these products?<br />
  17. 17. 3. What growers need<br />High yield potential in a wide range of environments<br />Effective management of biotic and abiotic constraints<br />Cost-effective, eco-efficient crop and soil management practices<br /><ul><li> Plant traits that enable efficient management
  18. 18. Efficient propagation systems
  19. 19. Root traits with a ready market</li></li></ul><li>3. What processors and consumers need<br />Year-round access to a uniform, quality product at a fair price<br />Specific starch traits<br />Good post-harvest storage<br />Ease of processing (root form, peel traits, fibre content)<br />High efficiency of conversion (according to specific end-uses)<br />
  20. 20. 4. How are we going to get there?Challenges and Opportunities<br />
  21. 21. 4. How are we going to get there?Challenges and Opportunities for the research community <br />“Africa has only 70 scientists per million inhabitants compared to 4380 scientists per million inhabitants in Japan” <br />Dr Papa AbdoulayeSeck, Director General of the Africa Rice Center (WARDA)<br />
  22. 22. 4. How are we going to get there?Challenges and Opportunities for the research community <br />Serious decline in funding in last 20 years<br />Many once-strong NARS cassava programs have made serious cutbacks in personnel and operations<br />Training of the new generation has lagged<br />Few national programs able to produce/manage crosses (About 50,000 – 100,000 seeds managed for every successful new variety developed)<br />In CGIAR – the trend away from interdisciplinary core-funded teams to special projects<br />Limited private sector support in most countries<br />
  23. 23. 4. How are we going to get there?Challengesand Opportunitiesfor the research community <br />Train young staff with advanced degrees<br />Commit to long term support for research<br />A system that fully integrates management and genetic improvement<br />A system that fully integrates molecular tools with plant breeding<br />Work to develop market demand<br />
  24. 24. Research efforts to increase cassava productivity<br />Genebanks: The principal resource for breeding<br />
  25. 25. Cassava Biodiversity<br />Wild Manihot species are unique sources of genes that could be used through breeding with marker assisted selection, and/or genetic transformation<br />BUT:<br />search first in M. esculenta<br />M. Bonierbale<br />
  26. 26. Cassava Genomics Tools<br />Mapping Tools<br /><ul><li>Several mapping populations linked to breeding
  27. 27. ~ 450SSRS, 301 AFLP-RFLPs, 17 Genes
  28. 28. MAS for CMD and Post Harvest Deterioration
  29. 29. New gene based microsatellite markers identified at CIAT (1391) in 2008 and at USDA –IITA (846) in 2009
  30. 30. SNP markers being developed at CIAT, U. Arizona, U. Maryland and U. Pretoria</li></ul>BAC Libraries<br /><ul><li>3 libraries with 5X, 10X, and 11X coverage
  31. 31. Deposited at Clemson Genome Center
  32. 32. Used so far by CIAT and EMBRAPA</li></li></ul><li>Cost of whole genome sequencingView in 2009<br />1995<br />10,000,000,000<br />June, 2007: Watson Genome -$2 Million. 454 technology<br />1,000,000,000<br />1998<br />100,000,000<br />10,000,000<br />2005<br />Complete Genomics (2009 ) - $5,000<br />1,000,000<br />100,000<br />2010<br />10,000<br />May 19, 2009: $1 Per Gene, Knome Launches $24,500 Genome Service<br />1,000<br />2015<br />1000 $ Genome<br />100<br />Adopted from Chan(2005), Mutation research.573:23-50)<br />
  33. 33. 4. The way forward<br />Organizational<br />Technical<br />
  34. 34. 4. Organizational <br />Move from project mode to integrated programmode for core activities (basic breeding, agronomy, pest management)<br />Participatory centralization for germplasm management<br />A world genebank that can be freely exchanged (also technical)<br />Revitalize national program capacity in conservation, breeding and “seed” systems<br />A molecular platform that includes broad developing country participation (e.g. the Integrated Breeding Platform of GCP)<br />Involve private sector to a greater extent<br />Building capacity for sustainable success!<br />
  35. 35. 4. Technical <br />Breeding capacity<br />Phenotypic characterization<br />Access to genomics facilities<br />Bioinformatics capacities<br />Low cost rapid propagation expertise<br />Capacity to transfer genes from cassava to specific genotypes (cisgenic products)<br />Development of transgenic products and how to manage the whole process<br />Access to biosafety fields <br />
  36. 36. Reducing costs<br />Access to technologies<br />Accelerate breeding<br />Integration with germplasm banks<br />Integration with breeding<br />CGIAR and Regional Infrastructures <br />Phenomics<br />Genotyping<br />GM<br />Microarray<br />Proteomics<br />Sequencing<br />Rapidly Evolving Technologies <br />
  37. 37. Breeding can be made much more efficient , but . . . <br />The need for multi-location, multi-year advanced testing (3 yrs?) places a lower limit.<br />
  38. 38. Traits for added value<br />
  39. 39. <ul><li>Farmers produce cassava with 30% added value.
  40. 40. Stronger market demand</li></ul>7.8<br />5.8<br />4.8<br />4.0<br />Crude protein content (%) DM basis<br />3.2<br />2.6<br />2.0<br />1.4<br />Variation in crude protein content of roots of 133 cassava clones<br />Fuente: Teresa Sánchez<br />
  41. 41. Reducción en el deterioro fisiológico de postcosecha enel híbrido inter-específico M. esculenta x M. walkerae(14 días luego de la cosecha)<br />MCOL 1505: 27.8%<br />MBRA 337: 9.48%<br />CW 429-1: 0%<br />CM 523-7: 51.9%<br />Fuente: C. Egesi<br />
  42. 42.
  43. 43. Average % amylose in the starch: 0.0-2.9%<br />“Waxy” cassava<br /><ul><li>“Waxy” maize has an added value of about 30% in the marketplace </li></ul>Stems<br />Fuente: Fernando Calle / Nelson Morante<br />
  44. 44. Grainswithcavities<br />Normal grains<br />Reduction in fermentationcosts<br />Small grains<br />Ease of accessforenzymes<br />Fuente : José A. Arroyave<br />
  45. 45. Summary:What’s limiting progress in breeding?<br />Low support to NARS/CGIAR for cassava R&D<br />Constraints on international shipment of germplasm (esp. LA to Africa)<br />Integration of molecular tools with field breeding<br />Success with dihaploidtechnology – trait discovery; deleterious recessives; breeding systems<br />Ability to induce flowering – produce more crosses<br />Regulatory environment for transgenics<br />Targeted gene insertion via cisgenics<br />
  46. 46. How?<br />Developing capacity in national programs<br />A long-term vision within the CG<br />Developing markets that drive demand<br />Public-private alliances<br />North-South collaboration<br />TEAMS + TOOLS + TIME<br />
  47. 47. THE VISION: Harvesting the sun -- A multi-purpose crop that meets the needs of food security and income generation for growers . . . and food, feed, fuel and diverse industrial uses in the marketplace, through eco-efficient management systems.<br />

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