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Managing Water Resources under Scarcity and Climate Change, Gloria Abouzeid and Amal Bushara, IFAD- ICARDA


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Managing Water Resources under Scarcity and Climate Change, Gloria Abouzeid and Amal Bushara, IFAD- ICARDA

  1. 1. Managing water resources under scarcity and climate change Theib Oweis Director, Integrated water and Land Management program, ICARDA, Aleppo, Syria For IFAD-ICARDA knowledge and technology exchange in NENA region, October 2009
  2. 2. Dry areas, water scarcity & Climate change <ul><li>Water scarcity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Projections alarming </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Climate change </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Drier </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extreme events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drought </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Less water for agriculture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More food needed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Consequences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social, economical, conflicts </li></ul></ul>Southern Mediterranean
  3. 3. Globally: Retain diversions to agriculture at the year 2000 levels Dry areas: Managing with less water Scarcity coping strategies Increasing Efficiency / productivity
  4. 4. Policies & institutions NARS training Integrated Water and Land Management Program Drought management W&L productivity improvement W&L resources assessment Combating land degradation
  5. 5. ICARDA new strategy <ul><li>Increasing agricultural water productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Risk management, drought & climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated land & water management </li></ul><ul><li>Diversification </li></ul>
  6. 6. Approaches <ul><li>Partnership with NARS </li></ul><ul><li>Community-based </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated </li></ul><ul><li>Benchmarking and scaling out </li></ul>
  7. 7. Real vs. paper water losses Storage Irrigation Precipitation Runoff recoverable Transpiration Evaporation Losses To ground water recoverable Deep percolation Drainage Partially recoverable Quality losses Seepage recoverable
  8. 8. Irrigation efficiencies: not enough <ul><li>Reflects irrigation performance </li></ul><ul><li>Ignore recoverable losses </li></ul><ul><li>Does not reflect productivity </li></ul>
  9. 9. Water productivity: the concept Return WP = --------------------------------- Unit of water consumed <ul><li>What return ?? </li></ul><ul><li>Biomass, grain, meat, milk (kg) </li></ul><ul><li>Income ($) </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental benefits (C) </li></ul><ul><li>Social benefits (employment) </li></ul><ul><li>Energy (Cal) </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition (protein, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>carbohydrates, fat) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What water ?? </li></ul><ul><li>Quality (EC) </li></ul><ul><li>Location (GW depth) </li></ul><ul><li>Time available </li></ul><ul><li>Consumed (depleted) </li></ul><ul><li>Evaporation </li></ul><ul><li>Transpiration </li></ul><ul><li>Quality deterioration </li></ul>
  10. 10. Scales and drivers to increase WP <ul><li>At the basin level: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>competition among uses (Env., Ag., Dom.) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>conflicts between countries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equity issues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At the national level: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>food security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>hard currency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sociopolitics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At the farm level: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>maximizing economic return </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrition in subsistence farming </li></ul></ul><ul><li>At the field level: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>maximizing biological output </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Tradeoffs between water & land productivity Max WP Max Yield
  12. 12. Range of WPs
  13. 13. Potential WP improvements <ul><li>Reducing evaporation </li></ul><ul><li>Improving management </li></ul><ul><li>Enhancing genetic resources </li></ul><ul><li>Great potential in developing countries </li></ul>
  14. 14. Dependence on green and blue water August 2006 Areas in green: agriculture mainly under rainfed Areas in blue: agriculture mainly under irrigation Circles depict total crop depletion Why rainfed systems?
  15. 15. Soil moisture deficit/yields
  16. 16. Yield gaps in rainfed areas <ul><li>Rainfed yields globally </li></ul><ul><li>Global yield gaps </li></ul><ul><li>Yield gap in wheat in Syria 1994-2005 </li></ul>
  17. 17. Constraints in rainfed areas <ul><li>Physical Constraints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Water scarcity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of organic matter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Soil erosion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutrients depletion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Socioeconomic constraints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Small holdings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Capacity for investment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Policies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Markets </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Supplemental irrigation Irrigating basically rainfed crops, normally produce without irrigation, to improve and stabilize production
  19. 19. Outstanding opportunities in highlands <ul><li>Turkey highlands /bread wheat </li></ul><ul><li>Rain usually late for good crop stand before winter frost dormant </li></ul><ul><li>SI for early germination </li></ul><ul><li>Further gains in spring SI </li></ul>
  20. 20. Advantage over full irrigation
  21. 21. Impact on wheat production in Syria
  22. 22. Contribution of inputs to rainfed yield increases
  23. 23. Badia: Rain is mostly lost in evaporation in salt sinks
  24. 24. Water harvesting
  25. 25. WH System Components <ul><li>The catchment </li></ul><ul><li>The target </li></ul><ul><li>The storage facilities </li></ul>Catchment Target Storage Runoff
  26. 26. Macrocatchments Catchment Target Storage runoff
  27. 27. Cisterns
  28. 28. Small water harvesting reservoirs
  29. 29. Jessour - Tunisia
  30. 30. Micro-catchments
  31. 31. Small runoff basins (negarim)
  32. 32. Contour ridges
  33. 33. Runoff strips for field crops
  34. 34. Semicircular bunds
  35. 35. Mechanization
  36. 36. Water harvesting from greenhouses
  37. 37. Rooftop water harvesting
  38. 38. Roaded catchments
  39. 39. Contour bench terraces Tunisia Yemen
  40. 40. Thank you