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Pintura RomáNica

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Pintura RomáNica

  1. 1. PINTURA ROMÁNICA
  2. 2. PINTURA ROMÁNICA Alberto Rubio Sánchez Departamento de Geografía e Historia IES Julio Caro Baroja Fuenlabrada - Madrid
  3. 3. PINTURA ROMÁNICA • Características generales (I): – Asociada a formas arquitectónicas: bóvedas, ábsides, etc. – La amplitud de los muros daba la posibilidad de desarriollar composiciones figurativas extensas. • Función: adoctrinamiento de los fieles. – La “Biblia pintada”. – Precedente en las creaciones prerrománicas y paleocristianas, con una fuerte influencia bizantina. • En la iconografía y en la organización de los temas se siguen los princpios del arte bizantino. – Decoración íntegra de los templos. – Interesa la expresión de las ideas: tendencia a las abstracciones y estilizaciones de carácter simbólico. • Representaciones intelectualizadas.
  4. 4. PINTURA ROMÁNICA • Características generales (II): – Organización compositiva: • Ábside: Pantocrátor y a los lados el Tetramorfos. • Nivel inferior de la cabecera: la Virgen y los Apóstoles. • Paredes del templo: escenas evangélicas o alegóricas. • Entrada a los pies: Juicio Final. – Técnica: • Preparación del muro con capas de argamasa: enfoscado. • Enlucido o capas de yeso: estucado. – Abrillantado, a veces, con aguacola. • Aplicación de la pintura al temple: pigmentos mezclados con huevo o cola. • Aplicación de grandes manchas de color. – Aplicación del dibujo mediante el estarcido.
  5. 5. PINTURA ROMÁNICA • Características generales (III): – Predominio del dibujo. • Figuras perfiladas en negro. – Colores planos: rojo, azul, blanco,.... – Ausencia de perspectiva. • Espacio irreal. – Luz: ausencia de focos de luz ni de sombras. – Composiciones estáticas. – Ley de la jerarquía: las figuras más importantes aparecen de mayor tamaño. – Rostros inexpresivos, hieráticos e iguales: interesa el mensaje simbólico, no la belleza formal.
  6. 6. FRANCIA • Talleres de Cluny: escuela de Borgoña. – Influencia del estilo italo-bizantino. – Caracterizadas por su suave y rico colorido. • Pinturas de Berzé-la-Ville. • Centro y sur de Francia. – Influidos por la tradición local. – Más expresivas. • Saint-Savin-sur-Gartempe. • Montmorillon
  7. 7. Berzé-la-Ville Ábside
  8. 8. Berzé-la-Ville Martirio de San Vicente
  9. 9. Saint Savin-sur-Gartempe; Martirio de San Sabino y San Cipriano
  10. 10. Iglesia de Nuestra Señora Montmorillon Virgen en Majestad
  11. 11. ITALIA • Manera italo-bizantina. – Ligada a las formas bizantinas. – Centrados en torno a la abadía de Montecasino: • Sant Angelo in Formis. – Situados más al norte: • San Vicente de Galliano. • San Pedro de Civate. • “Maniera greca”. – Estiliza las formas bizantinas. – Dará origen al naturalismo de la pintura florentina del siglo XIII. – Localizadas en la Italia central: • San Urbano alla Cafarella. • San Clemente. • San Silvestre.
  12. 12. Sant Angelo in Formis Juicio Final
  13. 13. San Vicente en Galliano, Profeta Jeremías
  14. 14. San Pietro del Monte en Civate, Arcángel Miguel
  15. 15. San Clemente en Roma, Milagro de la tumba de San Clemente
  16. 16. INGLATERRA • Influencia del estilo italo-bizantino benedictino. • Capilla de San Anselmo en la catedral de Canterbury. • Influencia más popular y expresiva. • Sussex. • Tránsito hacia el gótico. • Capilla del Santo Sepulcro en la catedral de Winchester.
  17. 17. Catedral de Canterbury San Pablo
  18. 18. ESPAÑA • Escuela italo-bizantina. – Predomina en Cataluña: • San Clemente de Tahull: Pantocrátor. • Santa María de Tahull: Virgen y Adoración de los Reyes. – También aparece en Castilla: • Santa Cruz de Maderuelo, Segovia. – Anónimo Maestro de Tahull. • San Baudelio de Berlanga. – Pinturas de la parte superior de tema religioso.
  19. 19. San Clemente de Tahull Lérida Pantocrátor
  20. 20. San Clemente De Tahull Lérida David matando a Goliath
  21. 21. Santa María de Tahull Lérida Virgen en majestad
  22. 22. San Pedro de Sorpe Lérida Anunciación
  23. 23. Santa Cruz de Maderuelo, Segovia, Adán y Eva
  24. 24. ESPAÑA • Escuela francesa. – Recibida a través del Camino de Santiago. • Panteón de San Isidoro de León. • Temas evangélicos y apocalípticos. • Temas profanos.
  25. 25. San Isidoro de León, Anunciación a los pastores
  26. 26. San Isidoro León Anunciación a los pastores
  27. 27. San Isidoro de León, matanza de los Inocentes
  28. 28. San Isidoro de León, Calendario agrícola
  29. 29. ESPAÑA • Influencia islámica-local. – No siguen los programas iconográficos bizantinos. – Temas apocalíticos basados en los Beatos mozárabes. – Temas animalísticos de influencia oriental. – Pinturas de temas profanos: cacerías. • San Justo, en Segovia. • San Román, en Toledo. • San Baudelio de Berlanga, en Soria. – Pinturas de la parte inferior de tema profano.
  30. 30. San Baudelio De Berlanga Soria Cacería
  31. 31. ESPAÑA • Pintura sobre tabla: – Modelo más frecuente: el frontal. – Influencia de las obras de orfebrería prerrománicas. – Influencia de la técnica del esmalte de la escuela de Limoges, en Francia. – Técnica utilizada: la pintura al temple. – Técnica del pastillaje para los relieves: aplicación de yeso antes de pintar. – Fondos de pan de oro. – Recubiertas con una capa de barniz. – Predominio de las escuelas catalanas.
  32. 32. Frontal de la Seo de Urgell, Lérida
  33. 33. Frontal del Salvador de Valitarga, en Gerona
  34. 34. Frontal de la Virgen de Aviá, en Barcelona
  35. 35. Frontal de Soriguerola, en Lérida
  36. 36. Frontal del Monasterio de Santo Domingo de Silos, en Burgos
  37. 37. Frontal de San Miguel in Excelsis Navarra
  38. 38. Tapiz de la Creación, catedral de Gerona
  39. 39. Beato de Gerona

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