FASCISM 
Italy and Germany 
DIANA ALVES. 4ºB 2013-2014 
IES FRAY PEDRO DE URBINA.
Index 
 Introduction to Fascism 
 Fascism in Italy: 
MUSSOLINI 
 Colonial Empire 
 How it influenced the 
World Wars ...
FASCISM 
 Right-wing political ideology/A radical authoritarian nationalism from the 
20th century in Europe. 
 Origin: ...
FACTORS THAT CAUSED ITS RISE 
 Economic factors 
 The economic instability weakened the political system 
Mass unemploy...
Germany's lost territories
FACTORS THAT CAUSED ITS RISE
FASCISM IN ITALY
MUSSOLINI 
29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945 
Italian politician, journalist and leader of the National Fascist Party, ruling ...
MUSSOLINI 
 1925 / 1927 - He began to establish his dictatorship by opposing press and non-fascist 
parties, and stated t...
Colonial Empire 
Invasion of Ethiopia – Italo-Ethiopian War 
Ethiopia (Abyssinia), which Italy had 
unsuccessfully tried ...
World Wars 
World War I 
During WWI Mussolini was just a soldier in the Italian army who served in the 
trenches, and he ...
The End of Mussolini 
 During the last days of the war, Mussolini attempted to escape the 
advancing Allied Army by hidin...
Mussolini's Death
Effects 
After Benito Mussolini's Death: 
The conflicts between political parties, which had given rise to a 
civil war (...
NAZI GERMANY
HITLER 
20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945. 
He was German politician and the leader of the Nazi Party. 
Hitler was at the ce...
HITLER 
 He eventually won the elections. 
 Stared a process of transforming the republic into the Third Reich, a 
singl...
Curiosity - Hitler's Elections Voting 
Ticket 
YES NO
The Holocaust 
 The Nazis were anti-semitic, which means they were racist towards 
people of other religions, cultures, e...
The Holocaust 
 They were sent to concentration camps, where 
they were executed, died in gas chambers, or 
died due to s...
World Wars & Foreign Policy 
 Like Mussolini, Hitler only participated in the World War I as a soldier, 
being decorated ...
How It Ended 
 Hitler ordered the attack to the Soviet 
Union, but it failed. 
 The United States joined the war, making...
Effects 
 There was no freedom of speech in Germany for 
many years. 
 Death of millions of people, mainly Jewish, in 
c...
MUSSOLINI & HITLER'S ALLIANCE 
 VIDEO
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Fascism

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The rise of fascist movements in Italy and Germany after WWI

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Fascism

  1. 1. FASCISM Italy and Germany DIANA ALVES. 4ºB 2013-2014 IES FRAY PEDRO DE URBINA.
  2. 2. Index  Introduction to Fascism  Fascism in Italy: MUSSOLINI  Colonial Empire  How it influenced the World Wars  How it ended  Effects  Nazi Germany:  HITLER  The Holocaust  World Wars & Foreign Policy  How it ended  Effects  Hitler & Mussolini's Alliance
  3. 3. FASCISM  Right-wing political ideology/A radical authoritarian nationalism from the 20th century in Europe.  Origin: Italy, during the World War I.  It's a very harsh control or authority from the government (dictator) in which people are not allowed to disagree with the government. CHARACTERISTICS  It banned opposition parties, trade unions and elections.  Opposed to democracy, liberalism and communism.  Use of intimidation and terror.
  4. 4. FACTORS THAT CAUSED ITS RISE  Economic factors  The economic instability weakened the political system Mass unemployment  Treaty of Versailles  Dissatisfaction with the terms of peace treaties of the WWI  Italy didn't received the territories that were promised  Germany lost territories
  5. 5. Germany's lost territories
  6. 6. FACTORS THAT CAUSED ITS RISE
  7. 7. FASCISM IN ITALY
  8. 8. MUSSOLINI 29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945 Italian politician, journalist and leader of the National Fascist Party, ruling the country as Prime Minister from 1922 to 1943. In 1922 he made a coup d’état, gaining the power and becoming a dictator (1925):  In October 1922, he organized a march to Rome. He commanded his forces from Milan and ordered them to seize power in Rome. Fearing the beginning of a civil war, the king Victor Emmanuel gave Mussolini the post of prime minister.
  9. 9. MUSSOLINI  1925 / 1927 - He began to establish his dictatorship by opposing press and non-fascist parties, and stated to persecute his enemies.  He also created the OVRA, a secret police force, and made the government entirely fascist.  And also by:  Subduing Libya (1922-1932)  Pacifying Somalia (1923-1927)  Conquering Ethiopia (1935-1936)  Helping the Nationalists to win the Spanish civil war (1936-1939)  Seizing Albania (April 1939) »» He made Italy predominant in the Mediterranean-Red Sea region. But his military adventures in 1935-1939 left his armed forces exhausted (military attacks to Abyssinia)
  10. 10. Colonial Empire Invasion of Ethiopia – Italo-Ethiopian War Ethiopia (Abyssinia), which Italy had unsuccessfully tried to conquer in the 1890s, was a prime target because it was still an independent country, one of only two in Africa. Mussolini was facing troubles at home because his government was corrupt. So to divert his people's attention, he said he would avenge the defeat and shame they all felt in the Battle of Adwa (1896) which they had lost. He also wanted to boost his party’s popularity.
  11. 11. World Wars World War I During WWI Mussolini was just a soldier in the Italian army who served in the trenches, and he was even wounded by an accidental explosion of a bomb. World War II In May 1938 (one year before the start of WWII), Mussolini promised to fight alongside Adolf Hitler in any war, against the democracies of the world. His armies, however, poorly led and not well prepared for war, were defeated quickly by Allied forces. Italian resistance to his dictatorship eventualy led to his fall from power and to his death.
  12. 12. The End of Mussolini  During the last days of the war, Mussolini attempted to escape the advancing Allied Army by hiding in a German convoy headed toward the Alps.  Guerrilla soldiers stopped and searched the convoy and found him in the back of a truck.  The guerrilla soldiers took him prisoner and he was later joined by his mistress, Clara Petacci.  The council of the guerrilla leaders, lead by the Communists, secretly decided to execute Mussolini and 15 leading Fascists in retaliation/revenge.  They were all executed on April 29, 1945, and their bodies were hung at a gas station in Milan.
  13. 13. Mussolini's Death
  14. 14. Effects After Benito Mussolini's Death: The conflicts between political parties, which had given rise to a civil war (1943-45), continued for about three more years. In 1946, Italians voted to dissolve the Monarchy, then in 1948, the first political elections were held, establishing the First Italian Republic.
  15. 15. NAZI GERMANY
  16. 16. HITLER 20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945. He was German politician and the leader of the Nazi Party. Hitler was at the centre of Nazi Germany, World War II in Europe, and the Holocaust. In the 1920s he became chancellor. In 1923, he attempted a coup d'état in Munich to take the power. The failed coup resulted in Hitler's imprisonment. After his release in 1924, Hitler gained popular support by attacking the Treaty of Versailles and promoting anti-Semitism, anti-communism, etc. with charismatic eloquence and Nazi propaganda, denouncing capitalism and communism as being part of a Jewish conspiracy.
  17. 17. HITLER  He eventually won the elections.  Stared a process of transforming the republic into the Third Reich, a single-party dictatorship (based on the totalitarian and autocratic ideology of National Socialism).  In 1934 he made himself supreme leader: AUTHORITARIAN DICTATORSHIP » TOTALITARIAN REGIME  His first six years in power:  Rapid economic recovery from the Great Depression  Annexation of new territories to Germany, which gave him significant popular support.
  18. 18. Curiosity - Hitler's Elections Voting Ticket YES NO
  19. 19. The Holocaust  The Nazis were anti-semitic, which means they were racist towards people of other religions, cultures, ethnicities, etc. and considered themselves superior. Hitler believed that the Jews were the great enemy of the German people.  The Holocaust consisted of a genocide: a mass extermination of mainly Jews (6 million died), but also Romani people, homosexuals, gypsies, etc.
  20. 20. The Holocaust  They were sent to concentration camps, where they were executed, died in gas chambers, or died due to starvation or exhaustion from the forced works.  Over 11 MILLION people died in the Holocaust in total. » The Holocaust documentary
  21. 21. World Wars & Foreign Policy  Like Mussolini, Hitler only participated in the World War I as a soldier, being decorated as veteran.  His aggressive foreign policy is considered to be the primary cause of the outbreak of World War II in Europe:  March 1938, Anschluss, annexation of Austria into Germany.  In September 1938, leaders of France and Great Britain met Adolf Hitler to discuss his demands, granting him control over the Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia. In return, Hitler promised to leave the rest of Czechoslovakia alone.  He broke that promise taking the rest of Czechoslovakia and then invading Poland.  He directed a large-scale rearmament of his troops and on September 1st, 1939 he invaded Poland, resulting in British and French declarations of war on Germany.
  22. 22. How It Ended  Hitler ordered the attack to the Soviet Union, but it failed.  The United States joined the war, making Germany turn defensive and suffer many defeats.  Germany was fighting the Soviet Union, The United States and France at the same time.  In the final days of the war, Adolf Hitler commited suicide to avoid being captured by the Red Army (Russia's army and air force).  Germany surrendered in the war one day after his death.
  23. 23. Effects  There was no freedom of speech in Germany for many years.  Death of millions of people, mainly Jewish, in concentration camps. The Jewish population has still not fully recovered.  Around 60 million combatants were killed in the World War II, which was provoked by Hitler and Germany when they attacked Poland.  Nazis are still around to this day.
  24. 24. MUSSOLINI & HITLER'S ALLIANCE  VIDEO

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