ART AND ARCHITECTUREat the beginning of 20° century
Introduction Art Nouveau plays an important role in the history of modern art and architecture in Europe, a kind of fundamental genetic unit able to carry on the extraordinary cultural heritage of 19th century to 20th one.
Origins of Art Nouveau The origins of art nouveau come from different parallel situations like Gothic revival, Arts and Crafts movement, iron buildings like arcades and greenhouses, the influence of pre-raphaelites, impressionist, symbolist painters, oriental objects, mainly from Japan, which were imported by the british A.L. Liberty, from which this style was named and from a taste for new techniques like wooden bending adopted by Thonet for his famous chairs since 1830…
Art Nouveau Art Nouveau wasn‟t only an architectural style but deeply influenced the costume of an age: it involves different fields of art like fashion, graphics, painting, theatre, advertising, furnishings and architecture.
Victor Horta Victor Horta was the first architect who created a building in Bruxelles, named Maison Tassel in 1893, that can be considered art nouveau
Horta Horta studied gothic revival and Viollet le Duc, post- impressionist painters and he got an organic interest, which was very meaningful in the aesthetics of Einfuhlung … empathy… feeling together
An international style Art Nouveau was the effort to put together upper class taste for beauty with poor buildings materials. It was able to produce objects and furnishings that every social class could buy and it gave birth to modern industrial design In a few words Art Nouveau caracterised middle class cottages and buildings but also underground stations, lower class buildings and even factories
A new style In this new style we find memories of Medieval age ( Gaudì, Mackintosh )Gaudì: Sagrada Familia Mackintosh: Queen‟s Cross church
An international style of classicism (Wagner, Olbrich, Hoffmann) or a popular taste (Van de Velde)
Architecture In architecture there‟s a stress on linear structures; that‟s why we get a new use of iron and different buildings materials mixed in the same building like brick, stone, glass, ceramics just to join together various production fields
Drawings and studies of art nouveau decorationsRealized by the students of the architectural department of Liceo Artistico Boccioni
Drawings realized by the students of the architectural department of Liceo Artistico Boccioni
Art Nouveau in Germany and AustriaThe German term Jugendstil goes back to the Munichmagazine Jugend, first published in 1896, as theyspread the spirit of optimism at the turn of thecentury.In France and Belgium, this style is known asArt Nouveau, after the art gallery LArt Nouveau Bingby Samuel Bing. Opened 1896 in Paris, the exhibitionroom with this name should underline the modernity ofthe presented items, including jewelry, glass art andfurnishings. The common name in Great Britain wasModern Style, in Spain this architecture was calledStyle Modernista or Modernisme. 1884 the wordmodernista was used for the first time in the journalL„Avenç on the occasion of an exhibition in Barcelonaabout European arts and crafts.
In Austria it was named Sezessionsstil after theartists association Wiener Sezession.All names, however, capture the central idea of thismovement: “It should be a youthful restart, whichrepresent, free of any requirement, the modern styleof the time.” cover of the Munich magazine Jugend 1896
. 1900 Vienna was the seventh largest city in the world whose population has grown from 1.3 to 2 million citizens between 1890 and 1910. The associated construction activity was the economic precondition for the artistic development of Art Nouveau in Vienna. The beginnings of Viennese Secession style can be attributed to the founding of the Vienna Secession artists association in 1897. The secessionists wanted to distance themselves from the conservative Academy of Fine Arts (lat. secedere: separate, split off).
This association, to which the painter Gustav Klimt and thearchitects Otto Wagner and Josef Maria Olbrich belonged ,demanded like other European artists "a break with theoutmoded traditions of historism and a renewal of Fine Arts.The period around the turn of the century can be describedas a time of "revolutionary reformers". The journal of thesecessionists Ver Sacrum (= sacred spring) announced inJanuary 1898: “Every age has its own sense. It is our aim toawake the artistic ideas of our time, to encourage anddisseminate them. […] The foreign art should inspire us, andreflect on ourselves, we don‟t want to imitate it .Unlike the French Art Nouveau, the Secession style ischaracterized "by clear, usually symmetrical arrangedbuildings and openings, strong axes and clear space
planning, often in conjunction with flat roofs." With thestrict geometric style, the Art Nouveau in Austria differssignificantly from the curvaceous buildings of Gaudί. Theright angle and strong contrasts of black and whitedominate the Austrian architecture in which eachornamental should frame and separate the different partsof the surface. Symbol of this new style is the foundation constructionof the Vienna Secession from 1898, build by the architectJoseph Maria Olbrich, an exhibition space for artists whocould no longer show their works in the Vienna house ofarts. The building is composed of “stereometric blocks”and adorned with a delicate, filigree decoration. For theformer understanding of architecture, the building was"very simply designed with and unusual cubic form.
Thereon towers the metal dome, made out of 3000 gildedlaurel leaves, like a crown above the entrance. Due to thisremarkable ornamentation, the building has been called"Krauthapperl" (= cabbage) by the Viennese. Other organicornaments are found in flat leaf and stem motives on theedges of the building.Under the dome the motto of the rebellious artistsassociation is inscribed in gold letters that provides aclear demand to the society: >To every age its art, to artits freedom<. The functionality of the new style is not onlyevident in the prestigious exhibition space, but also inother buildings such as the "Majolicahouse". It was builtin 1898 by Otto Wagner and is part of the left Vienna-line.
The weather-resistant, washable tiles of the outer wall are very easy to clean, which indicates the practical architecture of this style of architecture. The floral pattern is symmetrical and the majolica- tiles adorn the six floor apartment building. The numerous ornaments and decorations on the facade are going back to herbal and organic formssuch as "sunflowers, female figures, faces and masks." Thedecor had primarily the function to cheer the severe façadeup.
Otto Wagner, who joined the association "Vienna Secession” in 1899, was the town planner of Vienna. Since 1894 the establishment of the Vienna city railway was among his responsibilities.Wagner used the modern construction material iron for busstops and train stations, such as Gaudí and Guimard, but he putit, unlike to the Paris style, "always in conjunction with Stone".For example the iron skeleton of the Karlsplatz is filled withwhite walls of marble and plaster and adorned by goldensunflowers and green lines.
Art Nouveau and Liberty in Poland Paintings and stained glass Stanisław Wyspiański
Art Nouveau in Greece The New Art Movement (art nouveau) which had been prevailing in Europe since the late 19th century, is brought into Greece by Greek architects who had graduated schools of architecture abroad. However, their persecute is hesitating and limited
Greece Sophia Laskaridou (1882-1965) Dedicated to her art she created its own world of forms. There , without restrictions and inhibitions, she could implement the ideals of beauty.
Greece Thomas Thomopoulos (1873-1937) A Greek sculptor, painter and professor at the School of Fine Arts.
Spain : HISTORICAL CONTEXTSPANISH-AMERICAN WAR(189 ALFONSO XIII MONARCHY (1886-1931) DISASTER OF ANNUAL(1921) PRIMO DE RIVERA DICTATORSHIP (1923-1930) II REPUBLIC (1931-1936)CIVIL WAR(1936-1939)WORLD WAR II(1939-1945) FRANCO DICTATORSHIP (1939-1975)
ART CONTEXT (SPAIN) LLUÍS DOMÈNECH (MODERNIST ARCHITECT) JOAN MIRÓ (SURREALIST PAINTER)JUAN GRIS (CUBIST PAINTER) IGNACIO ZULOAGA (POST-IMPRESIONIST PAINTER)
JOAQUÍN SOROLLA Born in Valencia on February 27, 1863. Dead in Cercedilla (Madrid) on August 10, 1923. He is one of the leading figures in the Spanish Impresionism, and one of the most prolific (with more than two thousand works). His work can be divided into four periods: · Education (1863-1886) · Consolidation(1889-1899) · Culmination(1900-1910) · Final(1911-1920)
CONSOLIDATION(1889-1899)LOS GUITARRISTAS (1889) TRATA DE BLANCAS (1894)
CULMINATION(1900-1910)SERIE LA PLAYA DE ZARAUZ (1909-1910)
FINAL (1911-1920)JARDÍN DE LA CASA SOROLLA (1916) PESCADORAS (1915)
Catalonian Modernism: Lluis Domenech: i Montaner: Barcelona – Palau de la Musica
ANTONI GAUDÍBorn in Reus (Cataluña) on June 25, 1852.Dead in Barcelona on June 10, 1926.He is the most important and originalarchitect of the Modrernism in Spain andprobably the whole Europe.Numerous works by Gaudí have beendeclared World Heritage Sites by theUNESCO. His main work is the TemploExpiatorio de la Sagrada Familia, still underconstruction, where Gaudí worked all hislife, since 1882 until his death, exclusivelyhis last fifteen years (1911-1926).
Iron architectureEclecticism became the favourite artistic style of the triumphantbourgeoisie, who boasted its economical prosperity in architecture.
Tiles A large part of the Painting in Portugal was done on tiles which decoratedthe façades, friezes, or even large surfaces of the walls of many buildings
Art Nouveau Buidings - Aveiro On the left – Art Nouveau building - Republic Museum Building Female figure in the centre surrounded by floral arrangements In the middle - Rota da Luz House of TourismOn the right – House of the Agricultural Cooperative AssociationArchitects: Francisco Augusto Silva Rocha, Jaime Inácio dos Santos
Aveiro – House of Major PessoaArchitects: Francisco da Silva Rocha and Ernesto Korrodi
Building of the Four Seasons -Aveiro The façade is entirely covered with illustrative panels of the Four Seasons
Raimondo D‟Aronco was one of the most importantarchitects of Art Nouveau in Italy. He got graduation inVenice and taught at the university in Sicily. He worked inIstambul too for the rebuilding of the town
Pietro Fenoglio was an Italian engineer and architect lived at the turning of the20th century. Famous interpreter of Art Nouveau style, he graduated from the RoyalInstitute for Arts Applied in Turin, the city where he lived and worked for all his life. Atthe beginning of his career, his designs featured Neo-Gothic style; successively, afterthe Universal Exposition of Turin of 1902 , he approached Italian Art Nouveau style. Inthe same year, Fenoglio was elected counselor of Turin and he started working on thenew urban planning for the city (ended in 1908). Furthermore, he was member of theTurinese Society for public housing and of the journal "Larchitettura italianamoderna". Among his many projects and examples of his style there are: "Casa LeFleur", "Palazzina Rossi" and "Villino Raby" in Turin.
Art and architectureat the beginning of 20° centuryTowards a European Identityrealized by Liceo Artistico Boccioni, Naples ITWith the contribution of:IES El Burgo de las Rozas Madrid, ESEscola Secundaria Alexandre Herculano, Porto PTGeniko Likio Agiou Stefanou, Athens GRKatharinen-Gymnasium, Ingolstadt DEI Liceum im. Tadeusza Kosciuszki, Konin PL