Rise of Christianity - Rome Notes #4

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Rise of Christianity - Rome Notes #4

  1. 1. # The Rise of Christianity Rome Notes #4 1
  2. 2. Origins in Judaism • Romans were polytheistic. (Mythology) • When the Romans took over a land they allowed people to worship their gods as long as they also honored the Roman gods and the “divine spirit” of the emperor. • Some Jews known as zealots, believed they had to revolt to protect their belief in only one God and create their own nation. • Other Jews believed that God would soon send a messiah or savior to lead Jews to freedom. 2
  3. 3. • In 66-70AD they revolted against Rome. • The Romans then sacked the holy city of Jerusalem and destroyed all of the Jewish temple except the western wall. Wailing Wall. • In 135AD Hadrian banished all the Jews from the holy city of Jerusalem. Diaspora • Rabbis –Jewish scholars who interpreted scripture and learned Jewish Law. Rabbis became the leaders of Jewish communities outside of Jerusalem. 3
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  5. 5. • • • • Beliefs of Christianity and Teachings of Jesus of Nazareth Jesus began teaching around 27AD. According to the Gospels: Jesus traveled the countryside with his followers and disciples, performing miracles, and defended the poor. His life & teachings are recorded in the gospels of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. The gospels make up the first 4 books of the new testament of the BIBLE. (Holy Book) 5
  6. 6. • Jesus’ teachings were derived from Jewish traditions. • He emphasized that: • People must love God above all else. • They should love others as they love themselves • There is One true God. Monotheism • God cares for all people; especially those that are suffering 6
  7. 7. • Romans feared Jesus would lead an uprising. • Jesus was arrested, put on trial by Pontius Pilate (the governor), and crucified. • According to the Gospels: Jesus rose from the dead, remained on Earth for 40 days, and then went to heaven. • His followers then called him Jesus Christ, believed he was the Messiah, and had died for their sins.(christos = Greek word for Messiah) • Followers believed through this they could be redeemed from God’s final judgment. 7
  8. 8. Christianity Spreads • Christianity was appealing because it accepted everyone, poor and rich alike and provided an afterlife. • It was spread by the Apostles, including Paul, throughout the Roman Empire • The Roman government viewed Christianity as a Jewish sect. • Romans angry: --Christians converted people --spoke out against polytheism=Roman Beliefs 8
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  10. 10. • The Romans outlawed Christianity. Martyrs – people put to death for their beliefs. • But after the 5 Good Emperors, Rome entered a time of violence and unrest. 200sAD. • Realizing they could not punish all Christians, Rome accepted Christianity. • It was adopted and legalized by Emperor Constantine after a successful battle. • Theodosius made Christianity the official religion of Rome 10
  11. 11. Impact of the Church of Rome in the late Roman Empire • The Christian church became more organized and became known as the Roman Catholic Church. • Christian doctrine was established by early church councils • Priests conducted services and ceremonies • Bishops were above priests and headed the church in each city 11
  12. 12. • Patriarchs of these cities became Pope (latin word meaning “father”) • Peter, Jesus’ disciple was considered the first pope. • Church became an example of moral authority • Loyalty to the church became more important than loyalty to the Emperor • Church became main unifying force of Western Europe 12

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