Renaissance Notes


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Renaissance Notes

  1. 1. Renaissance Economic and Political Foundations of the Renaissance
  2. 2. • Wealthy merchant families were involved in business and politics. In addition, many were patrons (supporters) of the arts. – Medici Family of Florence a. Cosimo de Medici was involved in banking, ruled Florence, and was a supporter of artistic and scholarly projects.
  3. 3. b. Lorenzo de Medici (also known as Lorenzo the Magnificent) was involved in banking and also ruled Florence. He was a patron to many artists, most notably Michelangelo. Michaelangelo’s David Lorenzo de Medici
  4. 4. – Sforza family in Milan (Caterina Sforza ruled Milan) – Isabella D’Este of Mantua was a patron of the arts. Isabella D’Este Caterina Sforza
  5. 5. • Trade flourished in Italy during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, creating unprecedented wealth in Florence, Genoa, and Venice. Goods traded included woolens, leather, and silk. Florence was particularly known for banking (Medici family) and textiles.
  6. 6. • Usury (charging interest on money loaned) and using letters of credit became accepted practices during the Renaissance. • The Italian city-states were independent and enjoyed a democratic atmosphere. The Pope during this time was in Avignon and did not interfere with politics.
  7. 7. Intellectual Movements Humanism—a movement celebrating the glory and power of humans as an important part of the world. Classicism—a return to the ideals of Greece and Rome in intellectual thought, art, and architecture. Secularism—interest in the non-religious world and enjoyment of worldly pleasures. Left: Saint Peter’s Basilica, built around 1500 Right: The Pantheon, built around 126 Both are built in a classical Greek/Roman style
  8. 8. Humanism and Literature • Petrarch is considered the “father of humanism.” He wrote in prose and poetry about classical virtues and his unrequited love for a woman he called “Laura.” He wrote in both Italian and Latin. Supposedly, he died with a pen in his hand. • Dante’s The Divine Comedy emphasized politics and human interests. He wrote in the vernacular instead of Latin
  9. 9. • Castiglione wrote The Courtier, a handbook on how to be a “Renaissance Man.” Castiglione thought that men should speak Greek and Latin; be charming, polite, and witty; and be physically strong and graceful. Baldassare Castiglione The book is organized as a series of fictional conversations that occur between the courtiers of the Duke of Urbino in 1507.
  10. 10. • Machiavelli’s The Prince served as a secular treatise on how to be a good ruler. An idea attributed to Machiavelli is “The ends justify the means.” He frequently discusses ancient leaders as illustrations of what a good ruler should do. The Prince was first published in 1532. It is still studied today.
  11. 11. • Erasmus wrote The Praise of Folly, which poked fun at the clergy, scholars, and merchants. He was from Flanders, a center of the Northern Renaissance. • Shakespeare, an English playwright, wrote about the human condition in both tragedies and comedies.
  12. 12. Art Early Renaissance Artists –Giotto di Bondone painted frescos (painting wet plaster) of human figures that show depth and emotion. –Ghiberti carved the doors to the Florence Baptistry. –Brunelleschi designed the dome of the Cathedral of Florence, the first dome since antiquity. The doors of the Florence Baptistry Begun in 1296, the Cathedral of Florence was completed in 1436.
  13. 13. • Donatello sculpted the first freestanding nude statue of “David”. • Masaccio used perspective in painting to show distance and is considered the “father of modern painting.” Donatello’s David A close up view of Masaccio’s “Tribute Money”
  14. 14. High Renaissance Artists • Michelangelo sculpted the “David” and the “Pieta”; he is likewise known for painting of the Sistine Chapel ceiling with “The Last Judgment.” He also designed a dome for St. Peter’s Cathedral in Rome for Pope Julius II. “Pieta” “The Last Judgment” took four years to paint, and is 40 feet wide and 45 feet tall.
  15. 15. • Leonardo da Vinci painted “The Last Supper” and “The Mona Lisa”; he is also a renowned engineer and architect. A later patron of Leonardo is Francis I of France “Mona Lisa” was painted around 1503 Jesus an his apostles are depicted in “The Last Supper” This triple-barreled cannon was found in Croatia in 2011. It is believed to be based on DaVinci’s design
  16. 16. • Raphael painted “The School of Athens” and many Madonnas. The “Sistine Madonna” The “School of Athens” was painted in 1509-10
  17. 17. Northern Renaissance Artists • Durer created woodcuts and engravings. • Hans Holbein the younger is famous for his portraits, including “Henry VIII”. • Van Eyck is known for his paintings with vivid color and detail, such as “The Marriage Portrait.” The original Henry VIII was destroyed in a fire. This is one of may copies. Painted in 1434, this painting is considered one of the most complex paintings in Western art. The entire scene is reflected in the mirror on the back wall.
  18. 18. • Peter Bruegel the Elder is known for his paintings of weddings, festivals, and detailed peasant life. The “Peasant Wedding” 1566-69 “Hunters in the Snow” 1569 “The Painter and The Connoisseur,” 1565, is thought to be Bruegel's self-portrait
  19. 19. Important Cultural Centers of the Renaissance • The center of the Italian Renaissance in the 1400s (Quattrocento) was Florence. • In the 1500s, Rome became a center of art with Pope Julius II (1503–1513). He loved art and power and built a new St. Peter’s Cathedral with the help of Michelangelo.
  20. 20. • The Renaissance spread north as artists and ideas traveled. We refer to this as the “Northern Renaissance.” Flanders (the region of present-day Belgium) was a center of the Northern Renaissance. Flanders
  21. 21. Art and Humanism of the Northern Renaissance • The Northern Renaissance saw a fusion between Christianity and humanism. Art and literature were still primarily based on religion. –Northern Renaissance artists included Durer, Hans Holbein the Younger, Van Eyck, and Peter Bruegel the Elder. One of Albrecht Durer’s most famous woodcuts
  22. 22. • Northern humanists included Erasmus and Sir Thomas More. Their writings tended to be infused with Christianity. • In 1450 Johannes Gutenberg invented a printing press that used movable type. The Bible became an instant best seller. Sir Thomas More A page from the Gutenberg Bible Only 48 copies of the original Gutenberg Bible still exist. A replica of Gutenberg’s printing press
  23. 23. • Protestant Reformation – Martin Luther breaks away from the Catholic Church A 1533 portrait of Martin Luther. His battle with the Catholic Church began over the sale of “indulgences” to forgive sins. The Ninety-Five Theses were written by Martin Luther in 1517, and are widely regarded as the initial catalyst for the Protestant Reformation.