Founding of Roman Republic - Notes#1


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Founding of Roman Republic - Notes#1

  1. 1. #? Founding the Roman Republic Rome Notes #1
  2. 2. Importance of Geography  Alps: Protection from the North. Passages through mountains for invasion.  Seas: ports for trade, invasion by sea.  People migrated from the North to populate Italy.
  3. 3. The Founding of Rome     Before mid-700sbc the Latins moved into Italy. The Latins built villages which eventually united to create Rome. 600s Etruscan Kings from the North ruled Rome. Romans adopted their style of writing. Etruscan culture greatly influenced Rome. Jewelry, fine clothing, metal working, pottery, wood, paved roads, drain marshes, sewers.
  4. 4. Other city-states  Greek colonies in southern Italy and the island of Sicily became city-states.  They fought just like city-states in Greece.
  5. 5. Location of Rome  Rome was built on seven hills along the Tiber River. 15 miles inland from the coast. This gave the city protection from the sea.  Rome was at the center of trade routes that spread out across the land in all directions.
  6. 6. Early Roman Republic  509bc - Wealthy nobles overthrew the Etruscan king and promised to never be ruled by a MONARCHY again.  The Romans established a REPUBLIC = form of government in which voters elect officials to run the state. (Representative Democracy)  Only adult males could vote or be in the government. MR.E
  7. 7. Government in Roman Republic SAM  3 groups helped govern the Republic.  #1 SENATE. Most powerful. Controlled public funding and foreign policy.  Sometimes a court. In emergencies senate could make one citizen a DICTATOR = absolute ruler.
  8. 8. Continued…  #2 MAGISTRATES – Elected officials. 2 elected CONSULS = chief executives. Ran govt, commanded army, appoint dictators. Could VETO the other consul. (CHECKS AND BALANCES)  #3 ASSEMBLIES = voted on laws and elected officials and consuls. Vote for war or peace. Elected 10 member -TRIBUNES to decide if laws were in the interest of the people.
  9. 9. Social Structure in the Roman Republic  PATRICIANS = powerful nobility (few in number) inherited power. Controlled govt. Owned land.  PLEBEIANS – majority of population. Farmers and workers.  SLAVES – not based on race. Rome Republic Representative
  10. 10. Continued…  ~450bc the Romans engraved their laws onto stone tablets. These were called the TWELEVE TABLES. They were put in the FORUM for all to view.  After this the distinction between Patrician and Plebeian was less important.  However, public officials did not receive a salary. So only nobles could afford to be in govt.
  11. 11. The Republic Grows  Romans fought many wars against neighbors.  Controlled everything South of Rubicon R.  Expansion – well organized army + wise political policies. (taxes/citizenship)  ARMY – every adult male had to serve.  Non-citizen armies too = Mercenaries (bad idea)  Strong policies where they conquered, help to control the growing Empire.
  12. 12. Senate - Patricians Chosen for Life Controlled public funds At times – act as court Propose dictator during emergency Veto assembly Foreign policy Passed laws Elected officials Advised consuls Assemblies – Plebeians Elected officials Served in courts Elected tribunes Elect consuls Declare war Made some laws Veto magistrates Magistrates – later on some plebeians interprets and executes laws Consuls – 2 elected 1 yr. terms Censors Chief executives Registered citizens according to wealth Veto other consul In charge of citizen’s morals Ran govt and army Praetors – commanded army in war Formed law