Architecture and Arts-Pyramids ~80 still stand today. Giza Khufu/Cheops-Construction: ramps, levers, human labor-Sculptors statues of rulers and animals-Paintings show Egyptian way of life
Trade and Farming-Gov’t controls trade, no social mobility.-Women had rights and owned property given todaughters-Egypt traded surplus food to other civilizations(wheat, barley, flax, cotton) Most of productionwent to pharaoh.-1st to trade with sea ships.-Caravans – groups of people and camels traveltogether for protection.
Education and Religion-trained elite groups to be scribes learned to write inhieroglyphics and record-GODS local god linked to animal Amon- Re (RA) – creator God, Sun God Osiris – judged people after death Isis – Osiris’ wife – Goddess of Nile River/Royal Throne-After life persons heart weighed against a feather. Balanced eternal happiness Unbalanced monster gets it, “Eater of the Dead”-Mummification preserving the body
Math, Science, and Medicine-Calendar based on movements of the moon, starsabove before annual flooding – 365 days a year.-Counted years by Pharaoh’s reign.-Math number system based on ten. Fractions, wholenumbers.-Geometry to build pyramids and rebuild fields afterfloods.-Treat illness and mummify dead. Magic spells, herbs,and medicines.
OLD KINGDOM-2680 BC – 2180 BC-Menes/Namer – unites UE and LE. Creates a rulingdynasty and makes Memphis the 1st capital.-Development in science and arts (sphinx,pyramids, and mummification)-Social Classes: Pharaoh, royal family, priests, scribes, gov’t officials Peasants, farmers, army, laborNoble class grows power struggle betweennomarchs and with pharaoh “internal strife”
MIDDLE KINGDOM-2050 BC Egypt reunited by Mentuhotep.-Strong pharaoh makes Thebes 2nd capital.-Two national works projects: - drains Delta for farmland - connects Nile and Red Sea with canal-“Golden Age” – period of stability and prosperity-Hyksos – foreigners from western Asia cross the Sinai Peninsula and conquer Egypt with horse drawn chariots and bronze scimitars.- Hyksos rule Egypt for 100 years.
NEW KINGDOM-1570 BC - ~1080 BC-Egypt’s leaders drove out Hyksos by copying weapons “Cultural Diffusion”-Egypt united by long line of strong pharaohs. Gained land.-1530 BC – 1482 BC Hatshepsut – 1st female pharaoh. Keptboarders secure. Increased trade.-1482 BC – 1450 BC Thutmose III (stepson) – conquest andtrade, ruled at the height of Egypt’s power.-1380 BC – 1362 BC – Amenhotep IV – Believes only in RA.Attempts to make Egypt Monotheistic. Changes his name toAkhenaton.-Tutankhamen – King Tut. Dies at 19. Buried in “Valley of theKings” Changes Egypt back to Polytheism.
Egypt’s Decline-Ramses II – 1279 BC – 1213 BC “Ramses the Great”builds temples and monuments-Followed by weak rulers who could not keep offinvasion-~300 BC Egypt was ruled by outsiders.-Cleopatra – 1st century BC – tries to reunite Egypt andrule independently – fails-Egypt becomes province of Roman Empire.