Evaluation of World Bank Group Support to Youth Employment

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The early work situation of young people has welfare consequences for their future. Addressing youth employment issues is a major concern for governments, and is all the more challenging where stable economic policies are not in place and institutions are weak.

This presentation highlights select findings and recommendations from the evaluation of the World Bank Group Support to Youth Employment Programs. To read the full study, click on the following link: http://ow.ly/e4NmN

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  • See also the input in the High-level Panel consultation: http://www.worldwewant2015.org/node/281266#comment-36051
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  • Dear IEG, it is my pleasure to share.
    Further to my earlier comments on skills, I have been very positively surprised by the attention given to skills in the most recent 2012 Education for All Global Monitoring Report (http://www.unesco.org/new/en/education/themes/leading-the-international-agenda/efareport/reports/2012-skills/ ).
    Besides attention to Foundational skills, Technical and Vocational skills, it also gives attention to Transferable skills. The (levels of ) civic participation skills are primarily transferable skills. From level 3-apply (http://www.atria.us/sect:civic-participation-apply ) skill development (at broad) can be mostly self-guided, given there is access to training materials (libraries, the web,..) and coaching (the virtual learning communities). There is thus the seed of a blueprint for a web & social media enabled reconfiguration of the education system, so that it works better for youth and development.
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  • Dear Jan, many thanks for your comment and for sharing your experiences.
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  • As a former lecturer at a university, this presentation would not have earned me a high student satisfaction mark... had to look up TVET in the report, stands for Technical and Vocational Education and Training - very important indeed.
    Are the recommendations actionable? For Whom?

    Current practice in this area: The National Literacy Mission of India provides a large number (371) of vocational training programmes in the Jan Shikshan Sansthan (JSS) institutes, e.g. with list of courses http://janshikshanpune.com/courses.html

    Regarding skill development, vocational training builds upon literacy and (in the information age) digital competence, and development of the self is also linked to the community's development (civic participation). The confluence is explained in more detail at http://www.atria.us/sect:preface-skills

    The key challenge is how to provide TVET for an as broad spectrum of ISIC classes (from UNSD) as feasible/fit within the context of each and every municipality or district, where for most classes there is insufficient teaching capacity (locally, in the suitable language,...). The solution direction, imho, is to educate/train vocational core (ref. ISIC class) alongside the autonomy, Monitoring&Evaluation& Changes dimensions of the civic participation skill (ref. http://www.atria.us/sect:5-civic-participation ). International community should focus at providing the learning content (OER) organised by the skill levels, and navigatable by ISIC class. Learner's target careers in terms of ISIC class in their community. In virtual learning communities of the same ISIC class (regional, national,...), peer learning can occur (ref. the guilds in medieval European cities).
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Evaluation of World Bank Group Support to Youth Employment

  1. 1. WBG Support To Youth EmploymentPrograms :Selected Findings From An IEG Evaluation Creating Opportunities for Youth Employment The World Bank September 25, 2012 Independent Evaluation Group (IEG)
  2. 2. Three questions1. What is the nature of the Bank Group’s support to countries tackling youth employment problems?2. What is the evidence that the Bank Group supports priority country needs in youth employment issues?3. What is the evidence regarding the effectiveness of that support?
  3. 3. Differences in youth employment acrosscountries need different approachesNature of Problem ContextHigh unemployment for Economic crisis, structural reforms and lack of joball young workers creation in all countries Youth cohort growth is larger than job growth (e.g. Sub-Saharan Africa)High unemployment for Voluntary unemployment among higher-incomehighly-educated youth youth in MICs and LICs (e.g. Sri Lanka and MENA region)Large number of casual, low- In MICs and LICs with a small formal sectorproductivity, low-paid jobs Rural areas (farm and off-farm)held by youth Children in workforce and low school enrollmentHigh unemployment Regional disparities in all countriesconcentrated in subgroups of Discrimination against subgroupsyouth (minorities, poor)
  4. 4. What is the Bank doing?Between FY01 and FY11, the Bank loaned $2.85 billion toyouth employment through 90 operations in 57 countries,reflecting 0.9% of total lending 700 13.5 World Development Global Crisis Report on Youth 600 13 Youth Unemployment Rate (%) 500 Youth Unemployment Rate 12.5 US$ Millions 400 300 12 200 11.5 100 0 11 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Fiscal Year of Approval IBRD Actual IDA Actual Youth Unemployment Rate
  5. 5. Where did lending for youth employment go?►70% of lending to 10 countries, and 30% to 47 countries►Education • 40% of 90 projects and of $2.35 billion lending for YE • Other sectors: SP, FPD, PREM, SDN►Projects have a supply-side approach: • Most often supported: Labor market information, quality of formal TVET, information on training, skills recognition • Few interventions to support hiring, self-employment, business environment • Comprehensive approach missing including demand-side
  6. 6. What is the evidence regarding the effectiveness of Banksupport?► Youth employment is not a strategic issue in most CAS and CPS► Evidence is scant on employment/earning effect in projects: • Tracer studies find positive employment and earning effects of TVET • Workplace training increases effectiveness of formal TVET, but is restricted by small formal sector • Little is known from Bank support to: – Smoothing the transition from school to work and facilitating job mobility – Job creation / work opportunity interventions► Few Bank operations identify impact on low-income youth► Need better diagnostics to inform policy
  7. 7. Key lessons►Apply an evidence-based approach to youth employment programs►At the country level, take a strategic approach to youth employment by addressing the issue comprehensively, working across teams: • Participation of private sector • Monitoring and follow up of individual program participants, and • A combination of complementary interventions, • Work in rural low-income areas, programs stimulating the market environment for growth of farms, household enterprises and rural agribusinesses is essential, including addressing constraints faced by rural youth in accessing land, credit and skill.

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