Power Supply Management System Of A Small Satellite By Wajid


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Power Supply Management System of a Small Satellite by Wajid

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Power Supply Management System Of A Small Satellite By Wajid

  1. 1. Implementation of an Intelligent and Reliable Power supply management system of a Small Satellite <ul><li> Engr. Wajid Hassan </li></ul><ul><li>Department of Electronic Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Usman Institute of Technology, Pakistan </li></ul>
  2. 2. Theme of the project <ul><li>The aim is to develop a student based Pakistani satellite within a span of 5 to 10 years. </li></ul><ul><li>The aim of our project is to design and realize the power subsystem for the miniature (small) satellite. </li></ul>First Pakistani Student based LEO Satellite
  3. 3. Various sub systems of satellite <ul><li>Satellite structure </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite power system </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite Attitude Control System </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite thermal control system </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite propulsion system </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite Onboard Computer and Data handling unit. </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite telemetry and Tele-command system. </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite Antenna and RF system </li></ul><ul><li>Satellite earth station (s) </li></ul>Block Digram of a satellite
  4. 4. Power Supply Management System <ul><li>The Power supply management system is a system that is providing power sufficiently to all its subsystem. </li></ul><ul><li>The power management system comprises of the following module. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 Solar Array. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2 Battery Management Module. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 Power Distribution Module for loads. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Power Supply Management System….(Continued) <ul><ul><li>Solar arrays </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is the prime source of accumulating power to provide voltages and current for complete system. These voltages are being store in batteries. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Battery management system </li></ul><ul><li>comprises of multiple battery banks that will continue to provide power even if satellite is not aligned to sunlight. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This power system architecture incorporates maximum power point tracking system algorithm which is bound to provide maximum power to all its subsystems and loads incase of worsen condition. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The algorithm which we used in our project is Perturbation & </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Battery management module <ul><li>Battery management module is concerned mainly with the charging, discharging and of the batteries and showing the levels of the voltage in a certain battery. </li></ul><ul><li>This module is also responsible for switching of battery banks if the power from solar cell is not adequate to run the system. </li></ul><ul><li>Two power batteries are available in the system. One as a active function and other for redundant approach. </li></ul><ul><li>One other battery is used for providing reference voltage and is responsible to run the system if the power is at a very critical level and helps in running the most important parts of the satellite. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Power distribution module <ul><li>is responsible for providing required power efficiently with aid to voltage converters for all available subsystems and loads. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DC/DC Converters are being used to change DC electrical power efficiently from one electrical level to another. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>There are many types of converters available. Some of the types which were useful in our project is, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buck Converter. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Boost Converter. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buck-Boost Converter. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cuk Converter. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Charge pump Converter. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We are using Buck and Cuk converter in our project. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Various Existing Topologies of Power Supply System <ul><li>There are three most common power implementation approaches found on today's small satellites. These power system are as follows </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Direct Energy Transfer (DET) with Battery Bus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DET with Regulated Bus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maximum Power Point Tracker with Battery Bus. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Power requirements & Solar Array <ul><li>The requirement for our project is 12V which gives an ampere of 1.5A. </li></ul><ul><li>This 12V is being down convert to different voltage ratings i.e. 5V and 15V etc. depending upon the load input requirements. </li></ul><ul><li>Down conversion is done through DC-DC converter. </li></ul><ul><li>Solar Array Used and Its Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>The array which we are using is 20 W with two nodes of voltages available i.e. 24v and 12v. </li></ul><ul><li>The Array used is Silicon Based. </li></ul>
  10. 10. LEO Satellite Characteristics <ul><li>Satellites can operate in several types of Earth orbit. The most common orbits for environmental satellites are geostationary and polar.  </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Geostationary Orbit </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Medium Earth Orbit </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Low Earth Orbit </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Low Earth Orbit </li></ul><ul><li>Satellites in low earth orbit (LEO) orbit the earth at altitudes of less than 2000 km (1242 miles). </li></ul><ul><li>Satellites in LEO can get much clearer surveillance images and require much less power to transmit their data to the earth. </li></ul><ul><li>The satellite which we are planning to build is also for a LEO Earth Orbit. </li></ul><ul><li>The satellite will be placed on a circular Low Earth Orbit with the inclination of 96 degrees and height of approx. 600 km. Velocity of the satellite on orbit is estimated to be 27000 km/h. </li></ul><ul><li>Based on these parameters, revolution time has been computed: </li></ul><ul><li>Torbit : 100 min </li></ul><ul><li> Tsun : 65 min </li></ul><ul><li>Teclipse : 35min </li></ul>
  11. 11. The simplified overview of satellite power management system
  12. 12. Final Block Diagram of Satellite Power Management System
  13. 13. MPPT algorithms <ul><li>There are many different forms of MPPT implementations but there are two main classes: </li></ul><ul><li>(1) The Perturbation and Observation method (P & O Method) </li></ul><ul><li>(2) The Incremental Conductance method. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition there are other lesser known variations such as </li></ul><ul><li>Voltage feedback method. </li></ul><ul><li>Neural network method. </li></ul><ul><li>Curve fitting method. </li></ul><ul><li>Load matching method. </li></ul>Implementation of P&O MPPT algorithm
  14. 14. Reliability calculation <ul><li>Power management system is definitely the most essential system on satellite. </li></ul><ul><li>For this we need to ensure the reliability of the system. </li></ul><ul><li>Reliability calculations are often measured in mean time between failures (MTBF). </li></ul><ul><li>The inverse of MTBF is the failure rate. </li></ul><ul><li>MTBF = (MTTF + MTTR) = 1 / Failure rate. </li></ul><ul><li>In the Equation above MTTF is mean time to failure and MTTR is repair time. </li></ul><ul><li>The bath-tub curve shows the life cycle of electronic component, these component should be reliable such that it remain operational in worst case scenarios. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Highlights of the project
  16. 16. Future Work <ul><li>It is necessary to cooperate with other group working on the satellite then and then only the satellite power supply system could be tested in actual. </li></ul><ul><li>There is still a lot of work involved to complete the entire design of Power Supply Management Subsystem. </li></ul><ul><li>different parts of Power Supply Management Subsystem that needs some improvement are </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar Cells. (GaAs or any other4th generation Solar cell technology) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DC/DC Converters. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Electromagnetic Considerations. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AVR Controller must be used throughout. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I2C must be implemented. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simulators must be used for testing the various parts of Power supply system such as 2D and 3D model for Thermal Analysis </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Conclusion <ul><li>heavy difficulties due to the lack technical details of the satellite and heavy cost involved in developing reliable power supply using satellite graded components. </li></ul><ul><li>A detailed study of various subsystem was also done. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s the First student based satellite and others are encouraged to take interest in this demanding project and implement other subsystem in near future. </li></ul><ul><li>Difficulty faced in converter and sensors </li></ul><ul><li>Converters Issue </li></ul><ul><li>With market research it was noted that available converters are highly expensive and are in range between Rs 2000-2500 /= </li></ul><ul><li>Sensors Issue </li></ul><ul><li>Current sensors are not available in the market. </li></ul><ul><li>MAX series for current is available but it will prove to be highly expensive. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Thank You <ul><li>We dedicate this work to our Beloved Parents, Teachers and all the well-wishers who have always supported Us. </li></ul>