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Geothermal Energy Paper By Syed Tahir Hussain


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Geothermal Energy by Syed Tahir Hussain

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Geothermal Energy Paper By Syed Tahir Hussain

  1. 1. BISM-ALLAH AR RAHMAAN AR RAHIM In the name of Allah, the compassionate, the merciful
  2. 2. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY <ul><li>Geothermal power generating plants, which make use of the planet’s interior heat, are becoming increasingly popular around the world. Research is still being carried out into the most efficient way to extract the heat but commercial plants are already in operation. </li></ul><ul><li>The early use of geothermal was to heat buildings with water that was either already at a usable temperature or needed only minimal extra heating. Now, temperatures are being accessed that are high enough to be used in power generation turbines. </li></ul><ul><li>Roughly 99 per cent of the Earth’s mass is hotter than 1800 EC and, about three miles down, the temperature reaches several hundred degrees. The optimum way of accessing this energy at the moment is Hot Dry Rock (HDR) or Hot Fractured Rock (HFR) technology. These are referred to as Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) because they go beyond the drilling of a simple well. </li></ul>
  3. 3. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY <ul><li>The DR system comprises at least two depth drillings and one subterranean heat exchanger. The heat exchanger consists of natural joints in plutonite rock which are fractured and connected to each other with the help of water pressure, known as hydraulic simulation. </li></ul><ul><li>This enables the exploration of the earth’s interior heat outside known geothermal provinces. In contract to a geothermal field in a volcanic or teletonic anomaly, an EGS depends on the artificial stimulation of otherwise tight formations by hydraulic fracturing to create an underground heat exchanger. Fluid is then circulated in a close circuit. </li></ul>
  4. 4. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY <ul><li>It has been suggested that there could be sufficient energy to produce hundreds of megawatts of electricity per network and, at these depths; the technology enables geothermal power production virtually anywhere in the world. It is predicted that plants could work over a reservoir for 30 years without experiencing a significant drop in temperature. And this would be available 24 hours a day because it does not rely on variables such as tides, waves, wind or sun. But drilling is an expensive business. </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps high investment cost is one reason of its absence in our country but considering the present scenario being faced by the only two utility companies in our country and the present state of the available resources it is recommended to make a feasibility study for this clean and silent electricity from out of the ground. </li></ul>
  5. 5. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY <ul><li>Karl Gawell of the Geothermal Energy Association says geothermal power is now produced in 24 countries and in all continents except Antarctica. In 2003, geothermal resource supplied 57 000 Gigawatt hours of electricity needs of some 60 million people worldwide. But there are no power generation projects in UK. (like our own country) </li></ul><ul><li>The United States continues to produce more geothermal electricity than any other country, comprising some 32 per cent of the world total. But this is being challenged, particularly in the Philippines and Indonesia. HDR technology is also expected to produce hundreds of megawatt in Australia. </li></ul><ul><li>Societe de Cooperation Miniere et Industrielle (SOCOMINE) has been involved in the developmentof the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal technology since 1989, it is the co-ordinator and the main contractor of the European Hot Dry Roc Research Programme funded by the European union and other public and private organisations. </li></ul>Global Production
  6. 6. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY <ul><li>The site is selected to develop the technology is at Soultz, which is located about 50 km north of Strasbourg. Three wells have been drilled, one down to 4 km and two at 5 km. It is anticipated that some 6 MW will be generated when the site comes on full stream. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany is a current focus of attention and Egbert Brossmann heads a project some 20 miles and north of Berlin. Commissioned by energy giant Vattenfall Europe, he says Germany’s first geothermal power plant will supply some 3000 households with electricity. </li></ul><ul><li>Germany is a current focus of attention and Egbert Brossmann heads a project some 20 miles and north of Berlin. Commissioned by energy giant Vattenfall Europe, he says Germany’s first geothermal power plant will supply some 3000 households with electricity. </li></ul>
  7. 9. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY <ul><li>“ We are not as lucky as, let’s say Italy”, Says Brossman “the volcaninc character of the ground there provides working temperatures a few hundred meters below the surface whereas we have to dig down several kilometers for High temperature.” </li></ul><ul><li>Here comes the point where we have to ascertain through proper geo-thermal investigation to find out our country’s luck factor, in order to determine the extent of initial investment required, which of course depend on the depth of the availability of high temperatures. </li></ul><ul><li>In the south, German utlity EnBW is working on an HDR project in the Swabian town of Bad Urach where temperatures reach 170° C at a depth of 4445 m. In the initial stage, the plant will have an electrical capacity of about 1250 kW, sufficient to supply about 2000 households. Additional boreholes, an extended joints system, and larger volumes of circulating water will allow capacity to be further increased. </li></ul>
  8. 11. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY High Temperatures <ul><li>Bar Urach is situated over a geothermal anomaly. In the first 300-400 m the geothermal gradient is as high as 11°C per 100m. Below this the temperature increase is 4°C per 100 m. At 1600 m the bedrock starts and the temperature increase reverts to a normal 3°C per 100 m. </li></ul><ul><li>Geopower Basel AG was founded in 2004 with the goal of constructing the first geothermal power plant in Basel by 2009. This goes beyond power generation because the exhaust heat released during electricity production will be fed into urban remote heating networks. The energy power plant is expected to start generating electricity and heat in 2009. About 6 MW of electricity and 17 megawatts of thermal power are expected. </li></ul><ul><li>The first well will penetrate some 5000 m into the rock formation targeted for the heat exchanger. The aim is to develop a co-generation power plant with a power production of 3 MW and a heat production of 20 MW for the local district heating grid. </li></ul>
  9. 12. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY <ul><li>Extracting the heat from the underground source requires a heat exchanger and Ecolaire is one company that produces designs in both surface and direct contact geothermal condensers. </li></ul><ul><li>Under construction is a 30 MW geothermal surface condenser with a six-pass water-side arrangement designed to serve the dual purpose of providing district heating and power for the people of Iceland. </li></ul><ul><li>In operation it will raise the cooling water inlet temperature by almost 100° F for the purpose of district heating and will also provide a vaccum at the end of a low-pressure turbine-generator for high efficient power production. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to the highly corrosive geothermal environment the condenser has been designed with Titanium tubes and tube sheets in addition to internal support structures and an outer body made of 316 stainless steel to counteract the effects of corrosive steam. </li></ul>
  10. 13. <ul><ul><li>Increasing the efficiency of power generation is the subject of Siemens Industrial Solutions and Services Group project, which plans a geothermal power plant based on the Kalina Cycle. This uses a binary working fluid of water and ammonia instead of water alone. In contrast to pure media with a constant boiling point such as water or pentane, this mixture boils across a larger temperature range at a given pressure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kalina Cycle Power plants use less energy to heat the working fluid, allowing more of the energy to go directly to generating power and improving the cost effectiveness of the power plant. </li></ul></ul>GEOTHERMAL ENERGY The future
  11. 15. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY <ul><ul><li>The steam power plant now used to make electricity was invented 150 years ago by Scottish engineer William Rankine. It uses a heat source-coal, oil, natural gas, geothermal heat to produce high-pressure steam that drives a turbine. The excess steam is condensed into water, which is then pumped back to a boiler. But, in a Rankine cycle, only about 35 to 40 per cent of the heat energy released ever becomes electricity, which means an excess depletion of heating resources. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixing the water with ammonia, which evaporates at lower temperatures, can raise efficiency at the heat stage of the cycle. But ammonia also condenses less readily, forcing engineers to use smaller turbines and lowering efficiency. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 16. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY <ul><ul><li>Kalina’s invention solves that problem, using sophisticated thermodynamics to draw off most of the ammonia before the condensation stage. A Kalina cycle can boost efficiency / by as much as 40 per cent. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Siemens has been awarded a contract by HotRock Erdwarmekraftwerk GmbH to develop a geothermal power plant based on the Kalina principle. It is in the muncipility of Offenbach ad Queich in the German state of Rhineland, geologically the hottest zone in Germany. Here, temperature gradients of 50 °C and higher per 1000 m are achieved. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The well, which is just under 3 km deep, should provide water of at least 150°C. HotRock GmbH is located in nearby Karlsruhe and has designed a 5 MW power plant. This corresponds to the energy requirement of around 20,000 households. A coal-fired power plant with the same output would emit around 23 000 metric tons of CO2 every year. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 17. GEOTHERMAL ENERGY Many Benefits <ul><ul><li>Geothermal power generation offers many benefits over other renewable sources of energy. It is constantly available and so is ideal for supplying base load requirements, where reliability of supply is paramount. Wells could be operational for 30 years or more before they cool too far, providing plenty of opportunity for recouping the initial investment. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And the technology of obtaining heat from hot dry rock formations can be applied virtually anywhere in the world. It can also draw on the experience of the oil industry in drilling very deep wells below the earth’s surface </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finally, even modest wells can produce megawatts of electricity, making the technology a very valuable contributor to society’s needs. </li></ul></ul>