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Performance analysis of bi directional dc-dc converters for electric vehicles

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Performance analysis of bi directional dc-dc converters for electric vehicles

  1. 1. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF BI-DIRECTIONAL DC-DC CONVERTERS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES By A PROJECT REPORT Submitted to the Department of electronics & communication Engineering in the FACULTY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree Of MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY IN ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING APRIL 2016
  2. 2. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT CERTIFICATE Certified that this project report titled “PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF BI- DIRECTIONAL DC-DC CONVERTERS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES” is the bonafide work of Mr. _____________Who carried out the research under my supervision Certified further, that to the best of my knowledge the work reported herein does not form part of any other project report or dissertation on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasion on this or any other candidate. Signature of the Guide Signature of the H.O.D Name Name
  3. 3. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT DECLARATION I hereby declare that the project work entitled “PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF BI- DIRECTIONAL DC-DC CONVERTERS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES” Submitted to BHARATHIDASAN UNIVERSITY in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the Degree of MASTER OF APPLIED ELECTRONICS is a record of original work done by me the guidance of Prof.A.Vinayagam M.Sc., M.Phil., M.E., to the best of my knowledge, the work reported here is not a part of any other thesis or work on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasion to me or any other candidate. (Student Name) (Reg.No) Place: Date: ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
  4. 4. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT I am extremely glad to present my project “PERFORMANCE ANALYSIS OF BI- DIRECTIONAL DC-DC CONVERTERS FOR ELECTRIC VEHICLES” which is a part of my curriculum of third semester Master of Science in Computer science. I take this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude to those who helped me in bringing out this project work. I would like to express my Director, Dr. K. ANANDAN, M.A.(Eco.), M.Ed., M.Phil.,(Edn.), PGDCA., CGT., M.A.(Psy.) of who had given me an opportunity to undertake this project. I am highly indebted to Co-Ordinator Prof. Muniappan Department of Physics and thank from my deep heart for her valuable comments I received through my project. I wish to express my deep sense of gratitude to my guide Prof. A.Vinayagam M.Sc., M.Phil., M.E., for her immense help and encouragement for successful completion of this project. I also express my sincere thanks to the all the staff members of Computer science for their kind advice. And last, but not the least, I express my deep gratitude to my parents and friends for their encouragement and support throughout the project.
  5. 5. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT ABSTRACT: This paper suggests a new electrolytic capacitor-less bi-directional on-board charger for electric vehicle. It has a cascade structure of constant frequency resonant converter for electrical isolation and DCM buck/boost converter for charging/discharging control and input harmonic regulation. Harmonic modulation technique is also proposed to obtain a high power factor and structure change method has been adopted to cope with a wide line voltage condition. Harmonic regulation and charging/discharging control can be accomplished with very simple control algorithm so that high performance controller is not required. Its feasibility has been verified with a 3-kW prototype
  6. 6. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT INTRODUCTION: The DC-DC converter needs to have bi-directional power flow capability so that regenerative energy can be captured and stored in the energy storage. In addition, some applications may require overlapping input-output voltage ranges. The two DC-DC converters analyzed and compared in this research can be used for DC fast charging in EV/HEVs to extend the all-electric drive range. A municipal parking deck charging station with DC power distribution bus can employ bi-directional DC-DC charger to allow Vehicle to Grid (V2G) operation . V2G operation can be useful to inject real or reactive power to the grid to ensure current harmonic filtering or load balancing. A bi-directional converter with overlapping input output voltage range would enhance the operational flexibility for G2V or V2G applications. In, a battery charger comprised of interleaved CCM boost converter and FB converter has been proposed and evaluated. Also, power factor correction (PFC) converters suitable for EV based on bridgeless PFC converter and bi-directional H-bridge inverter have been studied. They have good performances of high power factor (PF), wide line regulation performance, and clean charging current but they have several disadvantages to be applied for vehicle applications. However, the intermediate dc link capacitor that should have a large value to filter power fluctuation has been implemented with a high voltage electrolytic capacitor that cannot be used in automotive applications due to its short lifetime.
  7. 7. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT To use a link capacitor mall enough to be implemented using film capacitor and link capacitor ripple reduction, several techniques have been studied to reduce the link capacitor ripple by using synchronization of input and output currents in link capacitor or additional circuit of ripple compensator . In addition, other circuit structures have been suggested using link voltage of the rectified ac waveform .
  8. 8. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT EXISTING SYSTEM: This system requires two switching dc to ac converters operating at a high frequency so as to convert the dc input to high frequency ac quantities. Galvanic isolation between the source and load side is provided by the high-frequency transformer. Transformer also performs voltage matching between the source and the load side since the voltage ratio between them is very high. The transformer works with ac quantities and hence a dc-ac converter is required at both the terminals. Since the system is meant for the energy transfer in both the directions, dc to ac converters employed must have the capability of bidirectional power flow. This converters also like the non-isolated bidirectional DC-DC converters works in two modes of operation i.e. in buck or boost.
  9. 9. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT PROPOSED SYSTEM: The conventional Cascaded Buck Boost Inductor in the middle (CBB-IIM) having an interfacing inductor between the input and output sides. On the other hand presents the Cascaded Buck Boost Capacitor in the middle (CBB-CIM) topology where the two half bridge converters are cascaded together with a common dc bus capacitor. The DC bus voltage is typically higher than the battery voltage in electric vehicles with a boost stage, but depending on the characteristics of the batteries and design of the propulsion system the battery voltage may overlap with the nominal DC bus voltage. Therefore, the converter must have the capability to handle the input and output side voltages with overlapping ranges. Both the converters, CBB- IIM and CBB-CIM, have the input and output voltage overlap capability
  10. 10. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT ADVANTAGES:  Low cost  Less number of switches
  11. 11. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT BLOCK DIAGRAM:
  12. 12. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT TOOLS AND SOFTWARE USED:  MPLAB – microcontroller programming.  ORCAD – circuit layout.  MATLAB/Simulink – Simulation
  13. 13. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT APPLICATIONS:  Electric and hybrid electric vehicle (EV/HEV).
  14. 14. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT CONCLUSION: A new bi-directional electrolytic capacitor-less EV on-board charger comprised of a resonant converter and DCM buck/boost converter has been proposed. To improve the power factor in the DCM operation and secure proper operation under discharging mode, harmonicmodulation technique has been proposed based on analysis of optimal operational duty- ratio. Also, structure change method has been adopted to avoid high gain operation of buck/boost stage. To verify the performance, a 3-KW prototype charger has been implemented with the design guideline. Experimental results show that the efficiency of around 93% under bi- directional power flow has been recorded at the rated condition, maintaining high power factor near to unity. Therefore, it may be suitable for full digital-controlled bi-directional EV chargers requiring for long lifetime and small size.
  15. 15. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT REFERENCES: [1] V. Monteiro, J. G. Pinto, B. Exposto, H. Goncalves, J. C. Ferreira, C. Couto, and J. L. Afonso, “Assessment of a battery charger for electric vehicles with reactive power control,” presented at the 38th Annu. Conf. IEEE Ind. Electron. Soc., pp. 5142–5147, Montreal, Canada, 2012. [2] O. C. Onar, J. Kobayashi, D. C. Erb, and A. Khaligh, “A bidirectional high-power-quality grid interface with a novel bidirectional noninverted buck–boost converter for PHEVs,” IEEE Trans. Veh. Tech., vol. 61, no. 5, pp. 2018–2032, Jun. 2012. [3] U. K. Madawala and D. J. Thrimawithana, “A bidirectional inductive power interface for electric vehicles in V2G systems,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 58, no. 10, pp. 4789–4796, Oct. 2011. [4] O. C. Onar, J. Kobayashi, D. C. Erb, and A. Khaligh, “Bi-directional charging topologies for plug-in hybrid electric vehicles,” in Proc. Appl. Power Electron. Conf., 2010, pp. 2066–2072. [5] R. J. Ferreira, L. M. Miranda, R. E. Araujo, and J. P. Lopes, “A new bidirectional charger for vehicle-to-grid integration,” in Proc. IEEE PES Int. Conf. Exhib. Innovative Smart Grid Technol., 2011, pp. 1–5.

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