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CELL: 9894917187 | 87548...
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CELL: 9894917187 | 87548...
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CELL: 9894917187 | 87548...
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CELL: 9894917187 | 87548...
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CELL: 9894917187 | 87548...
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CELL: 9894917187 | 87548...
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Bidirectional pwm converter integrating cell voltage equalizer using series resonant voltagemultiplier for series-connected energy storage cells

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Bidirectional pwm converter integrating cell voltage equalizer using series resonant voltagemultiplier for series-connected energy storage cells

  1. 1. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT BIDIRECTIONAL PWM CONVERTER INTEGRATING CELL VOLTAGE EQUALIZER USING SERIES-RESONANT VOLTAGE MULTIPLIER FOR SERIES- CONNECTED ENERGY STORAGE CELLS By A PROJECT REPORT Submitted to the Department of electronics & communication Engineering in the FACULTY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree Of MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY IN ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING APRIL 2016
  2. 2. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT CERTIFICATE Certified that this project report titled “BIDIRECTIONAL PWM CONVERTER INTEGRATING CELL VOLTAGE EQUALIZER USING SERIES-RESONANT VOLTAGE MULTIPLIER FOR SERIES-CONNECTED ENERGY STORAGE CELLS” is the bonafide work of Mr. _____________Who carried out the research under my supervision Certified further, that to the best of my knowledge the work reported herein does not form part of any other project report or dissertation on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasion on this or any other candidate. Signature of the Guide Signature of the H.O.D Name Name
  3. 3. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT DECLARATION I hereby declare that the project work entitled “BIDIRECTIONAL PWM CONVERTER INTEGRATING CELL VOLTAGE EQUALIZER USING SERIES-RESONANT VOLTAGE MULTIPLIER FOR SERIES-CONNECTED ENERGY STORAGE CELLS” Submitted to BHARATHIDASAN UNIVERSITY in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the Degree of MASTER OF APPLIED ELECTRONICS is a record of original work done by me the guidance of Prof.A.Vinayagam M.Sc., M.Phil., M.E., to the best of my knowledge, the work reported here is not a part of any other thesis or work on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasion to me or any other candidate. (Student Name) (Reg.No) Place: Date:
  4. 4. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am extremely glad to present my project “BIDIRECTIONAL PWM CONVERTER INTEGRATING CELL VOLTAGE EQUALIZER USING SERIES-RESONANT VOLTAGE MULTIPLIER FOR SERIES-CONNECTED ENERGY STORAGE CELLS” which is a part of my curriculum of third semester Master of Science in Computer science. I take this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude to those who helped me in bringing out this project work. I would like to express my Director, Dr. K. ANANDAN, M.A.(Eco.), M.Ed., M.Phil.,(Edn.), PGDCA., CGT., M.A.(Psy.) of who had given me an opportunity to undertake this project. I am highly indebted to Co-Ordinator Prof. Muniappan Department of Physics and thank from my deep heart for her valuable comments I received through my project. I wish to express my deep sense of gratitude to my guide Prof. A.Vinayagam M.Sc., M.Phil., M.E., for her immense help and encouragement for successful completion of this project. I also express my sincere thanks to the all the staff members of Computer science for their kind advice. And last, but not the least, I express my deep gratitude to my parents and friends for their encouragement and support throughout the project.
  5. 5. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT ABSTRACT: In conventional energy storage systems using seriesconnected energy storage cells such as lithium-ion battery cells and supercapacitors (SCs), an interface bidirectional converter and cell voltage equalizer are separately required to manage charging/ discharging and ensure years of safe operation. In this paper, a bidirectional PWM converter integrating cell voltage equalizer is proposed. This proposed integrated converter can be derived by combining a traditional bidirectional PWM converter and seriesresonant voltage multiplier (SRVM) that functionally operates as an equalizer and is driven by asymmetric square wave voltage generated at the switching node of the converter. The converter and equalizer can be integrated into a single unit without increasing the switch count, achieving not only system-level but also circuit-level simplifications. Open-loop control is feasible for the SRVM when operated in discontinuous conduction mode,meaning the proposed integrated converter can operate similarly to conventional bidirectional converters. An experimental charge–discharge cycling test for six SCs connected in series was performed using the proposed integrated converter. The cell voltage imbalance was gradually eliminated by the SRVM while series-connected SCs were cycled by the bidirectional converter. All the cell voltages were eventually unified, demonstrating the integrated functions of the proposed converter.
  6. 6. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT INTRODUCTION: In general, energy storage cells/modules (hereafter, simply “cells”) need to be connected in series to form a string to meet system voltage requirements. The voltages of individual series connected cells gradually become imbalanced due to characteristic mismatches in terms of capacity/capacitance, self-discharge rate, and internal impedance. The temperature gradient in energy storage modules/systems comprising numerous cells connected in series is another major cause of voltage imbalance, because the self-discharge rate is significantly temperature dependent. If cell voltages are mismatched, some cells with higher (or lower) voltages might be overcharged (or over discharged) during the charging (or discharging) process because cells are charged (or discharged) in series. Energy storage cells, particularly lithium-ion cells, must be operated within a safety boundary to ensure years of safe operation otherwise resulting in accelerated aging and increased risks of hazardous consequences triggering an explosion in the worst-case scenario. Accordingly, for energy storage modules/systems to operate safely and properly, cell voltage equalization techniques to eliminate and/or preclude cell voltage imbalance are crucial. In general, energy storage cells/modules (hereafter, simply “cells”) need to be connected in series to form a string to meet system voltage requirements. The voltages of individual series- connected cells gradually become imbalanced due to characteristic mismatches in terms of capacity/capacitance, self-discharge rate, and internal impedance. The temperature gradient in energy storage modules/systems comprising numerous cells connected in series is another major cause of voltage imbalance, because the self-discharge rate is significantly temperature dependent.
  7. 7. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT If cell voltages are mismatched, some cells with higher (or lower) voltages might be overcharged (or overdischarged) during the charging (or discharging) process because cells are charged (or discharged) in series. Energy storage cells, particularly lithium-ion cells, must be operated within a safety boundary to ensure years of safe operation otherwise resulting in accelerated aging and increased risks of hazardous consequences triggering an explosion in the worst-case scenario. Accordingly, for energy storage modules/systems to operate safely and properly, cell voltage equalization techniques to eliminate and/or preclude cell voltage imbalance are crucial.
  8. 8. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT EXISTING SYSTEM: A buck–boost bidirectional battery equalizer composed of MOSFET switches with body diodes and a large inductance inductor. This nondissipative equalization design has many advantages such as high equalization efficiency due to the nondissipative current diverter, bidirectional energy transferring capability, and a modular design
  9. 9. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT PROPOSED SYSTEM: In this paper, a bidirectional PWM converter integrating voltage equalizer for series- connected energy storage cells is proposed. The proposed integrated converter can be derived by combining a traditional bidirectional PWM converter and a series-resonant voltage multiplier (SRVM) that functionally operates as a voltage equalizer and is driven by an asymmetric square wave voltage generated at a switching node of the PWM converter. The bidirectional converter and voltage equalizer can be integrated into a single unit without increasing switch count, thus realizing not only system-level but also circuit-level simplifications.
  10. 10. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT ADVANTAGES:  High voltage gain  Isolation between input and output
  11. 11. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT BLOCK DIAGRAM:
  12. 12. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT TOOLS AND SOFTWARE USED:  MPLAB – microcontroller programming.  ORCAD – circuit layout.  MATLAB/Simulink – Simulation
  13. 13. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT APPLICATIONS:  Electric vehicles and grid-connected applications
  14. 14. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT CONCLUSION: A bidirectional PWM converter integrating a cell voltage equalizer has been proposed in this paper. The proposed integrated converter is basically the combination of a traditional bidirectional PWM converter and SRVM that functionally performs cell voltage equalization. An asymmetric square wave voltage generated at the switching node of a converter is exploited to drive the SRVM, hence the SRVM itself is a switchless circuit. The two functional elements (i.e., bidirectional converter and equalizer) can be integrated into a single unit without increasing the switch count, hence realizing system- and circuitlevel simplifications
  15. 15. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT REFERENCES: [1] M. Uno and K. Tanaka, “Accelerated charge-discharge cycling test and cycle life prediction model for supercapacitors in alternative battery applications,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 59, no. 12, pp. 4704–4712, Dec. 2012. [2] S. M. Lambert, V. Pickert, J. Holden, X. He, and W. Li, “Comparison of supercapacitor and lithium-ion capacitor technologies for power electronics applications,” in Proc. Power Electron. Mach. Drives, Apr. 2010, pp. 1–5. [3] M. Uno and K. Tanaka, “Spacecraft electrical power system using lithiumion capacitors,” IEEE Trans. Aerosp. Electron. Syst., vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 175–188, Jan. 2013. [4] K. Nishijima, H. Sakamoto, and K. Harada, “A PWM controlled simple and high performance battery balancing system,” in Proc. IEEE Power Electron. Spec. Conf., Jun. 2000, pp. 517–520. [5] Y. S. Lee and M. W. Cheng, “Intelligent control battery equalization for series connected lithium-ion battery strings,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 52, no. 5, pp. 1297–1307, Oct. 2005.

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