AUTOMATIC INGOT FEEDER FOR BOUNDARY
This project work titled “AUTOMATIC INGOT FEEDER FOR BOUNDARY” has been
conceived having studied the difficulty in type of aluminum ingot material.
Our survey in the regard in several industrial boundary of furnace, revealed the facts that
mostly some difficult methods were adopted in the ingot boundary. this ingot feeder using two
An ingot is a material, usually metal, that is cast into a shape suitable for further processing.
Non-metallic and semiconductor materials prepared in bulk form may also be referred to as
ingots, particularly when cast by mold based methods.
SCOPE OF THE PROJECT:
A foundry is a factory that produces metal castings. Metals are cast into shapes by melting them into
a liquid, pouring the metal in a mold, and removing the mold material or casting after the metal has
solidified as it cools. The most common metals processed are aluminum and cast iron. However, other
metals, such as bronze, steel, magnesium, copper, tin, and zinc, are also used to produce castings in
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Molten steel from BOF/EAF is tapped into a teeming ladle. Deoxidizers, decarburizes and alloying elements
if required, are added for the final finishing with respect to oxygen content and other elements in steel. The
steel may be degassed either before or during casting. In the modern steel plants, steel is cast continuously.
In several small scale plants, particularly those based on induction melting furnaces ingot casting is
practiced. Ingot casting is done in cast iron moulds having square, round or polygon cross section. Ingots
with square cross section are used for rolling into billets, rails and other structural sections. Whereas, ingots
with rectangular cross section (also known as slab), are used for rolling into flat products. Round ingots are
used for tube making. Polygon ingots are used to produce tyres, wheels, etc. Typically an ingot weighing 5-
20 tons for rolling, whereas few hundred to 300 tons for forging.
Ingot mould types
Cast iron is used to fabricate the mould. Thermal coefficient of cast iron is lower than steel as a
result, steel on solidification contracts more than cast iron which makes detachment of ingot easier from the
mold. Inner walls of the mould are coated by tar or fine carbon. The coated material decomposes during
solidification which prevents sticking of solidified ingots with the inner walls of the mold.
Molds are essentially of two types:
i) Wide end up or narrow end down
ii) Narrow end up or big end down
A material that has been cast into a shape in order to be transported and processed easier than in an
unprocessed form. An ingot is typically rectangular in shape, which allows it to be stacked. Ingots are most
commonly associated with metals,
The pneumatic cylinder picks up the ingot material in to the furnace tank in slow motion by using the
compressed air. The d.c motor used to move the ingot material to furnace by using the microcontroller
Melting is performed in a furnace. Virgin material, external scrap, internal scrap, and alloying
elements are used to charge the furnace. Virgin material refers to commercially pure forms of the
primary metal used to form a particular alloy. Alloying elements are either pure forms of an alloying
element, like electrolytic nickel, or alloys of limited composition, such as ferroalloys or master
alloys. External scrap is material from other forming processes such as punching, forging, or
machining. Internal scrap consists of the gates, risers, or defective castings.
The process includes melting the charge, refining the melt, adjusting the melt chemistry and tapping into a
transport vessel. Refining is done to remove deleterious gases and elements from the molten metal to avoid
casting defects. Material is added during the melting process to bring the final chemistry within a specific
range specified by industry and/or internal standards. During the tap, final chemistry adjustments are made.
Several specialized furnaces are used to melt the metal. Furnaces are refractory lined vessels that
contain the material to be melted and provide the energy to melt it. Modern furnace types include electric arc
furnaces (EAF), induction furnaces, cupolas, reverberatory, and crucible furnaces. Furnace choice is
dependent on the alloy system and quantities produced. For ferrous materials, EAFs, cupolas, and induction
furnaces are commonly used. Reverberatory and crucible furnaces are common for producing aluminum
Furnace design is a complex process, and the design can be optimized based on multiple factors. Furnaces in
foundries can be any size, ranging from mere ounces to hundreds of tons, and they are designed according to
the type of metals that are to be melted. Also, furnaces must be designed around the fuel being used to
produce the desired temperature. For low temperature melting point alloys, such as zinc or tin, melting
furnaces may reach around 327° Celsius. Electricity, propane, or natural gas are usually used for these
temperatures. For high melting point alloys such as steel or nickel based alloys, the furnace must be
designed for temperatures over 1600° Celsius. The fuel used to reach these high temperatures can be
electricity or coke.
The majority of foundries specializes in a particular metal and has furnaces dedicated to these metals. For
example, an iron foundry (for cast iron) may use a cupola, induction furnace, or EAF, while a steel foundry
will use an EAF or induction furnace. Bronze or brass foundries use crucible furnaces or induction furnaces.
Most aluminum foundries use either an electric resistance or gas heated crucible furnaces or reverberatory
easily maintence of furnace
men work is reduce
ingot material easily move to furnace using electronic control circuits
Initial cost is high.
High maintenance cost.
There is used two pneumatic cylinder
All material factory application