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A novel pwm high voltage conversion ratio bi directional three-phase dc dc converter with y-δ connected transformer

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A novel pwm high voltage conversion ratio bi directional three-phase dc dc converter with y-δ connected transformer

  1. 1. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.co m Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT A NOVEL PWM HIGH VOLTAGE CONVERSION RATIO BI-DIRECTIONAL THREE-PHASE DC/DC CONVERTER WITH Y-Δ CONNECTED TRANSFORMER By A PROJECT REPORT Submitted to the Department of electronics & communication Engineering in the FACULTY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree Of MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY IN ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING APRIL 2016
  2. 2. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.co m Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT CERTIFICATE Certified that this project report titled “A NOVEL PWM HIGH VOLTAGE CONVERSION RATIO BI-DIRECTIONAL THREE-PHASE DC/DC CONVERTER WITH Y-Δ CONNECTED TRANSFORMER” is the bonafide work of Mr. _____________Who carried out the research under my supervision Certified further, that to the best of my knowledge the work reported herein does not form part of any other project report or dissertation on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasion on this or any other candidate. Signature of the Guide Signature of the H.O.D Name Name
  3. 3. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.co m Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT DECLARATION I hereby declare that the project work entitled “A NOVEL PWM HIGH VOLTAGE CONVERSION RATIO BI-DIRECTIONAL THREE-PHASE DC/DC CONVERTER WITH Y-Δ CONNECTED TRANSFORMER” Submitted to BHARATHIDASAN UNIVERSITY in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the Degree of MASTER OF APPLIED ELECTRONICS is a record of original work done by me the guidance of Prof.A.Vinayagam M.Sc., M.Phil., M.E., to the best of my knowledge, the work reported here is not a part of any other thesis or work on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasion to me or any other candidate. (Student Name) (Reg.No) Place: Date:
  4. 4. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.co m Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am extremely glad to present my project “A NOVEL PWM HIGH VOLTAGE CONVERSION RATIO BI-DIRECTIONAL THREE-PHASE DC/DC CONVERTER WITH Y-Δ CONNECTED TRANSFORMER” which is a part of my curriculum of third semester Master of Science in Computer science. I take this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude to those who helped me in bringing out this project work. I would like to express my Director, Dr. K. ANANDAN, M.A.(Eco.), M.Ed., M.Phil.,(Edn.), PGDCA., CGT., M.A.(Psy.) of who had given me an opportunity to undertake this project. I am highly indebted to Co-Ordinator Prof. Muniappan Department of Physics and thank from my deep heart for her valuable comments I received through my project. I wish to express my deep sense of gratitude to my guide Prof. A.Vinayagam M.Sc., M.Phil., M.E., for her immense help and encouragement for successful completion of this project. I also express my sincere thanks to the all the staff members of Computer science for their kind advice. And last, but not the least, I express my deep gratitude to my parents and friends for their encouragement and support throughout the project.
  5. 5. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.co m Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT ABSTRACT: In order to solve the problem of high voltage conversion ratio between DC bus and energy storage unit, a novel bi-directional three-phase DC/DC converter applicable to high power condition is proposed in this paper. With the new PWM strategy and inherent ability of increasing voltage conversion ratio of Y-Δ connected transformer, the voltage conversion ratio is doubled. With the new PWM strategy, the effective duty cycle range of three-phase DC/DC converter is expanded, which results in halved filter inductance. Three-phase full-bridge structure is connected to the DC bus, while current-tripler unit is connected to the battery. As three-phase interleaved structure is adopted, not only current stress of switches decreases, but also the frequency of input and output current ripple increases to three times of switching frequency, which leads to smaller filters and extended lives cycle of batteries. The operating principle and characteristics of the converter are analyzed in detail. A prototype with the 360V DC bus converted to 48V/42A batteries was built and the results are given based on the experiments.
  6. 6. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.co m Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT INTRODUCTION: Bi-directional DC-DC converter (BDC) is usually applied between DC bus and energy storage unit in DC micro-grid. The DC bus voltage level is about 360-400V, while the voltage of battery cell is as low as 12V or 48V. Thus there is a big disparity between the two power sources in which the BDC needs high voltage conversion ratio (HVCR). A high voltage level can be acquired with batteries in series; however, extra charging and discharging balance circuits are needed in order to avoid the problems of overcharge and over discharge which will influence the lifespan of batteries. In high power conditions, the voltage of battery cell is 12V or 48V that the power semiconductors and magnetic components face severe current stress. Paralleling of power switches becomes popular solution to increase the current rating; however, it may incur several problems, such as current sharing and complicated control strategy. Therefore, it’s necessary and meaningful to research BDC with HVCR in high power ratings application. In high power conditions, the voltage of battery cell is 12V or 48V that the power semiconductors and magnetic components face severe current stress. Paralleling of power switches becomes popular solution to increase the current rating; however, it may incur several problems, such as current sharing and complicated control strategy. Therefore, it’s necessary and meaningful to research BDC with HVCR in high power ratings application. For traditional isolated BDC, adopting large turn ratio of transformer can achieve HVCR. However, large leakage inductance and parasitic capacitance owing to large turn ratio cause the problems such as: high voltage stress of power switches, serve electromagnetic interference, lower efficiency.
  7. 7. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.co m Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT summarizes the strategies of achieving HVCR of non-isolated DC/DC converter, including introducing coupled inductor cell or switching capacitor cell, utilizing cascaded converters et al. For isolated DC/DC converter, there are also several methods to achieve HVCR. introduces series connected multi-windings to improve converter voltage gain resulting in complicated manufacture and larger parasitic parameters of transformer. Besides, the multi-windings need extra voltage-sharing circuit. proposed a HVCR DC/DC converter with voltage-doubler rectifier cell but voltage-sharing problem of voltage dividing capacitors is also under consideration for BDC. Two-stage converters are proposed o improve voltage gain despite low efficiency and the stability problem of cascading converters. Three-phase DC/DC converter (TPDC) is defined as the converter in which three-phase transformer is applied and chopper cell and rectifier cell is constituted of three bridge legs
  8. 8. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.co m Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT EXISTING SYSTEM: The TPDAB is composed of three interleaving single-phase dual active bridge current source bidirectional DC/DC converters (DAB), and each phase output is 120 degree apart from each other. In this mode, the input current rating is increased by interleaving three phases, not by paralleling components, and the ripple frequency will be increased to three times the switching frequency and current ripple will be greatly reduced due to cancelling effects between each phase. The power flow of the TPDAB is controlled by the shifting phase between active bridges at low voltage side (LVS) and high voltage side (HVS). When energy flows from the 12V net side to the high voltage DC (HVDC) netside, the TPDAB works in boost mode, in which the driving pulses at LVS are ahead of that at HVS. The leakage inductances La~Lc of the high frequency transformer are acting as intermediate elements to store and transfer the power. The 12V net, the coupling three-phase input inductors L1~L3, and the switches S2, S4, S6 compose boost circuits. The duty cycles of the switches S1, S3, S5 are set at D, so the voltage V1 of capacitor C1 is boosted to 1/D times of Vin. The capacitors C1, C2 are used to handle high switching current ripple and maintain a nearly constant dc bus voltage. The stress of each switch of TPDAB converter is about one third of the single-phase topology, although the total stress is about the same for both converters since the number of switches is increased three times in TPDAB converter. The current stress of capacitors C1 and C2 of three-phase topology is much lower than that of the single-phase circuit therefore smaller capacitor could be used for three-phase topology and power density will be improved.
  9. 9. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.co m Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT PROPOSED SYSTEM: The topology of proposed three-phase BDC with Y-Δ connected transformer. The high voltage side (HVS) connected to DC bus is three-phase full-bridge chopper unit composed of power MOSFETs QH1-QH6 paralleled with body diodes DH1 DH6. The low voltage side (LVS) is a current-tripler unit composed of power MOSFETs QL1-QL3 paralleled with body diodes DL1-DL3, filter inductors Lf1-Lf3 and filter capacitor CfL. If the energy transfers from HVS to LVS, the converter works in Buck mode, otherwise in Boost mode.
  10. 10. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.co m Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT ADVANTAGES:  The current stress of power switches decreases, and the converter is preferred in high power applications.  The voltage conversion ratio is doubled, thus the turn ratio of transformer is halved in high voltage conversion ratio conditions.  The primary voltage of transformer is 2/3Vin, therefore the insulation requirement of transformer reduces.  The ripple frequency of input and output current is three times of switching frequency, so the input and output filter capacitors can be smaller to improve dynamic performance of the converter.  Compared with traditional asymmetrical PWM control, the equivalent voltage ratio is doubled, thus the rms current of primary switches and transformers decreases
  11. 11. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.co m Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT BLOCK DIAGRAM:
  12. 12. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.co m Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT TOOLS AND SOFTWARE USED:  MPLAB – microcontroller programming.  ORCAD – circuit layout.  MATLAB/Simulink – Simulation
  13. 13. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.co m Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT APPLICATIONS:  High step-up or high step-down application.
  14. 14. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.co m Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT CONCLUSION: A bi-directional three-phase DC/DC converter with new PWM strategy proposed in this paper has several advantages as follows: 1) The current stress of power switches decreases, and the converter is preferred in high power applications; 2) The voltage conversion ratio is doubled, thus the turn ratio of transformer is halved in high voltage conversion ratio conditions; 3) The primary voltage of transformer is 2/3Vin, therefore the insulation requirement of transformer reduces; 4) The ripple frequency of input and output current is three times of switching frequency, so the input and output filter capacitors can be smaller to improve dynamic performance of the converter; 5) Compared with traditional asymmetrical PWM control, the equivalent voltage ratio is doubled, thus the rms current of primary switches and transformers decreases. The future work can focus on achieving soft-switching of LVS switches with active clamp technology.
  15. 15. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.co m Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT REFERENCES: [1] S Xu, J Wang, J Xu. “An equalizing charge control strategy to extend battery cycle life for electric vehicles,” Proceeding of the CSEE, vol.32, no.3, pp.43-48, 2012. [2] F Liu, G Hu, X Ruan. “Three-phase three-level DC/DC converter for high input voltage and high power applications-adopting symmetrical duty cycle control, ” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol.29, no.1, pp.56-65, Jan. 2013. [3] W Li, X He. “Review of nonisolated high-step-up DC/DC converters in photovoltaic grid- connected applications,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol.58, no.4, pp.1239-1250, Apr. 2011. [4] W Li, W Li, X He, et al. “General derivation law of nonisolated high-step-up interleaved converters with built-in transformer,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol.59, no.3, pp.1650-1661, 2012. [5] M Shen, F Z Peng, L M Tolbert. “Multilevel dc–dc power conversion system with multiple dc sources,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron. , vol.23, no.1, pp.420-426, 2008.

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