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A learning framework for age rank estimation based on face images with scattering transform

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A learning framework for age rank estimation based on face images with scattering transform

  1. 1. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY / KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: +91 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com A LEARNING FRAMEWORK FOR AGE RANK ESTIMATION BASED ON FACE IMAGES WITH SCATTERING TRANSFORM By A PROJECT REPORT Submitted to the Department of electronics &communication Engineering in the FACULTY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree Of MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY IN ELECTRONICS &COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING APRIL 2016
  2. 2. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY / KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: +91 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com CERTIFICATE Certified that this project report titled “A Learning Framework for Age Rank Estimation Based on Face Images With Scattering Transform” is the bonafide work of Mr. _____________Who carried out the research under my supervision Certified further, that to the best of my knowledge the work reported herein does not form part of any other project report or dissertation on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasion on this or any other candidate. Signature of the Guide Signature of the H.O.D Name Name
  3. 3. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY / KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: +91 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com DECLARATION I hereby declare that the project work entitled “A Learning Framework for Age Rank Estimation Based on Face Images With Scattering Transform” Submitted to BHARATHIDASAN UNIVERSITY in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the Degree of MASTER OF APPLIED ELECTRONICS is a record of original work done by me the guidance of Prof.A.Vinayagam M.Sc., M.Phil., M.E., to the best of my knowledge, the work reported here is not a part of any other thesis or work on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasion to me or any other candidate. (Student Name) (Reg.No) Place: Date:
  4. 4. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY / KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: +91 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am extremely glad to present my project “A Learning Framework for Age Rank Estimation Based on Face Images With Scattering Transform” which is a part of my curriculum of third semester Master of Science in Computer science. I take this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude to those who helped me in bringing out this project work. I would like to express my Director,Dr. K. ANANDAN, M.A.(Eco.), M.Ed., M.Phil.,(Edn.), PGDCA., CGT., M.A.(Psy.)of who had given me an opportunity to undertake this project. I am highly indebted to Co-OrdinatorProf. Muniappan Department of Physics and thank from my deep heart for her valuable comments I received through my project. I wish to express my deep sense of gratitude to my guide Prof. A.Vinayagam M.Sc., M.Phil., M.E., for her immense help and encouragement for successful completion of this project. I also express my sincere thanks to the all the staff members of Computer science for their kind advice. And last, but not the least, I express my deep gratitude to my parents and friends for their encouragement and support throughout the project.
  5. 5. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY / KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: +91 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ABSTRACT: This paper presents a cost-sensitive ordinal hyperplanes ranking algorithm for human age estimation based on face images. The proposed approach exploits relative-order information among the age labels for rank prediction. In our approach, the age rank is obtained by aggregating a series of binary classification results, where cost sensitivities among the labels are introduced to improve the aggregating performance. In addition, we give a theoretical analysis on designing the cost of individual binary classifier so that the misranking cost can be bounded by the total misclassification costs. An efficient descriptor, scattering transform, which scatters the Gabor coef- ficients and pooled with Gaussian smoothing in multiple layers, is evaluated for facial feature extraction. We show that this descriptor is a generalization of conventional bioinspired features and is more effective for face-based age inference. Experimental results demonstrate that our method outperforms the state-ofthe-art age estimation approaches.
  6. 6. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY / KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: +91 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com INTRODUCTION: Automatic age estimation, which involves evaluating a person’s exact age or age-group, is a crucial topic in human face image understanding. The task of estimating exact human age adopts a dense representation of the age labels (e.g., from 0 to 80), and the task of age-group estimation divides the labels only into rough groups (e.g., elder, adult, and teenage/children). In this paper, we focus on the setting of the former task that can be applicable to more general situations. Nevertheless, the proposed method can be used for age-group estimation as well. Some video- based age estimation approaches utilize temporal dynamic features, In this paper, we focus on the study of image-based approaches. Two main components for building an effective age estimator are facial feature extraction and estimator learning. We discuss them Manuscript received June 8, 2014; revised October 20, 2014; accepted December 11, 2014. Date of publication January 5, 2015; date of current version January 20, 2015. This work was supported by the National Science Council of Taiwan under Grant MOST103-2221-E-001-010. The associate editor coordinating the review of this manuscript and approving it for publication was Prof. Stefano Tubaro. K.-Y. Chang is with the Institute of Information Science, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan C.-S. Chen is with the Institute of Information Science, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan, and also with the Research Center for Information Technology Innovation, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan Color versions of one or more of the figures in this paper are available online Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/TIP.2014.2387379 briefly in the following to motivate our approach. To learn an age estimator, most approaches formulate it as either a multi-class classification problem, or a regression problem, Multi-class approaches simply treat the age values as independent labels and learn a classifier to infer the person age. Many standard approaches such as k Nearest Neighbors, Multilayer Perceptrons, Adaboost, Support Vector Machine (SVM), can be employed to predict the specific age or age group. Regression approaches basically learn a function that best fits the mapping from the feature space to the age- value space with appropriate regularization. Typical nonlinear regression approaches such as quadratic regression, Gaussian Process,and Support Vector Regression (SVR),have been used to solve the age estimation problem as well. However, the classification approaches merely regard
  7. 7. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY / KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: +91 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com the age labels independent to each other but overlook the inter-relationship among the age values. Although the regression approaches take the inter-relationship into account, the labels are treated as linearly increased values that cannot reflect the non-stationarity of human aging process Instead of classification or regression, recent studies have proposed learning-to-rank approaches to solve the age estimation problem recently. Unlike the classification approaches that treat the labels naively as independent tags or the regression approaches that treat the labels as simply proportional quantities, ranking approaches can be trained by adopting the ordering property of the labels, thereby achieving superior performance. The earliest ranking-based age estimation approach has been given in This study employed the ranking method in for age rank estimation. Ranking (or ordinal regression) models are suitable for age estimation because the relative ordering information among the age labels is employed appropriately. However, the performance improvement is still limited because multiple hyperplanes parallel to each other are used in a single kernel space for dense-labeled age estimation. In a feature-selection approach has been proposed for the age-ranking method introduced in These approaches use multiple hyperplanes in the feature or kernel spaces and aggregate the hyperplane classification results to infer the age rank, which have been shown effective for improving the age inference performance. In this paper, we introduce a learning-to- rank approach for age estimation. Our approach utilizes the relative order of age labels to conduct an effective age estimator. Beside, we propose a cost-sensitive ordinal ranking framework and provide 1 a theoretical bound guarantee that can be applied to common performance indices (such as mean absolute error (MAE) and cumulative score (CS) for age estimation. In addition to learning, feature representation is a critical problem when estimating age based on facial images. To derivefacial aging features, early study,adopts skin wrinkles and distances between facial components (such as eyes and noses), but such simplified features are inadequate for accurate age estimation. To extract more details, active appearance model (AAM), learns both shape and appearance models via principal component analysis (PCA), which becomes one of the most popular
  8. 8. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY / KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: +91 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com features for face-related tasks An evaluation of AAM can be found in.Besides the employment of facial landmarks, some approaches build the feature vector based on appearances directly. For example, Ahonen et al. and Zhou et al. use local binary patterns (LBP) and Haar-like wavelets as feature representations to estimate the human age, respectively. In addition, previous studies have developed dimension reduction models, such as manifold learning ,to construct facial aging features. One of the most effective appearancebased features is the Bio-inspired Features (BIF) of which is designed by simplifying the feed-forward model in the ventral stream of primate visual cortex In this paper, we introduce the use of scattering transform (ST) for human age estimation based on face images. In BIF, features are constructed by convolving the input image with Gabor filters of different scales and orientations. Subsequently, the pixels of each transformed image are pooled to form a feature vector. BIF has shown their high efficacy for face-based age estimation. However, pooling the convolved coefficients of Gabor-wavelets facilitates local translation invariance and reduces texture detail. To address this problem, ST retains the highfrequency information by a cascaded structure, which can recover the lost texture details so that the discriminating capability is better preserved. In Section V, we will explain that BIF is analogous to the first layer of ST though a slightly different pooling operator is adopted. We also compare their performance to demonstrate the effectiveness of ST for face-based age estimation. Characteristics of this work are summarized as follows. 1) We introduce an effective divide-and-conquer approach for ordinal regression, which divides the age rank estimation problem into a set of cost-sensitive binary classification problems and then the binary results areaggregated for rank inference. 2) We conduct a theoretical bound to support our framework and explain why the ranking performance of the divide-and-conquer approach can be improved whenmaking the binary classifiers better. 3) We give an insightful interpretation of BIF by showing that it can be considered as the first layer of a more general model, ST. 4) Our approach that employs ST in ranking inference can achieve state-of-the-art performance on a large human-face age dataset.The rest of this paper is organized as follows. Section II reviews previous studies on human age inference based on face images. Sections III
  9. 9. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY / KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: +91 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com outlines the proposed learning framework for age ranking. Section IV introduces our cost- sensitive rank learning algorithm. Section V presents the feature representations employed in our approach. Experimental results are shown in Section VI. Finally, conclusions are given in Section VII.
  10. 10. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY / KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: +91 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com CONCLUSION: We proposed an age ranking approach, CSOHR, for human face age estimation. The proposed approach employs relative order information among age ranks, and utilizes cost sensitivity to regulate a series of K binary classifications that is aggregated for rank inference. We also showed a theoretical bound analysis of CSOHR. Additionally, a translationinvariant and deformation- stable descriptor, ST, is used and evaluated for feature extraction of facial components. Experimental results demonstrated that our learning framework, CSOHR, outperforms conventional classification, regression and ranking approaches. Besides, by combining CSOHR and ST, the MAE of the large dataset, MORPH Album 2, can be reduced to 3.74 years for the selected Caucasian subset and 3.82 years for the whole dataset, which are the best among the associated results of current studies. Currently, we focus on age estimation from faces of nearly neutral facial expressions, and evaluate our methods on the datasets (FG-NET and MORPH Album 2) without serious facial expression variations. However, expression changes could affect the age estimation results. Estimating both the age rank and facial expression intensity rank is a possible way to solve this problem. Weplan to extend the proposed approach by transfer learning like to tackle this problem in the future.
  11. 11. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY / KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: +91 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com REFERENCES: [1] A. Hadid, “Analyzing facial behavioral features from videos,” in Human Behavior Understanding. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag,2011. [2] H. Dibeklio˘glu, T. Gevers, A. A. Salah, and R. Valenti, “A smile can reveal your age: Enabling facial dynamics in age estimation,” in Proc. 20th ACM Int. Conf. Multimedia, 2012, pp. 209–218. [3] A. Lanitis, C. Draganova, and C. Christodoulou, “Comparing different classifiers for automatic age estimation,” IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern. B, Cybern., vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 621– 628, Feb. 2004. [4] C. Li, Q. Liu, J. Liu, and H. Lu, “Learning ordinal discriminative features for age estimation,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Comput. Vis.Pattern Recognit., Jun. 2012, pp. 2570–2577. [5] C.-C. Wang, Y.-C. Su, C.-T. Hsu, C.-W. Lin, and H. Y. M. Liao,“Bayesian age estimation on face images,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf.Multimedia Expo, Jun./Jul. 2009, pp. 282–285. [6] X. Geng, Z.-H. Zhou, and K. Smith-Miles, “Automatic age estimation based on facial aging patterns,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell.,vol. 29, no. 12, pp. 2234–2240, Dec. 2007. [7] Y. Fu and T. S. Huang, “Human age estimation with regression on discriminative aging manifold,” IEEE Trans. Multimedia, vol. 10, no. 4,pp. 578–584, Jun. 2008. [8] B. Ni, Z. Song, and S. Yan, “Web image mining towards universal age estimator,” in Proc. 17th ACM Int. Conf. Multimedia, 2009, pp. 85–94. [9] G. Guo, G. Mu, Y. Fu, and T. S. Huang, “Human age estimation using bio-inspired features,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Comput. Vis. Pattern Recognit., Jun. 2009, pp. 112–119. [10] G. Guo, Y. Fu, C. R. Dyer, and T. S. Huang, “Image-based human age estimation by manifold learning and locally adjusted robust regression,” IEEE Trans. Image Process., vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1178–1188, Jul. 2008. [11] Y. Zhang and D.-Y. Yeung, “Multi-task warped Gaussian process for personalized age estimation,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Comput. Vis.Pattern Recognit., Jun. 2010, pp. 2622–2629.

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