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A high efficiency resonant switched capacitor converter with continuous conversion ratio

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Final Year IEEE Projects for BE, B.Tech, ME, M.Tech,M.Sc, MCA & Diploma Students latest Java, .Net, Matlab, NS2, Android, Embedded,Mechanical, Robtics, VLSI, Power Electronics, IEEE projects are given absolutely complete working product and document providing with real time Software & Embedded training......
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A high efficiency resonant switched capacitor converter with continuous conversion ratio

  1. 1. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT A HIGH-EFFICIENCY RESONANT SWITCHED CAPACITOR CONVERTER WITH CONTINUOUS CONVERSION RATIO By A PROJECT REPORT Submitted to the Department of electronics & communication Engineering in the FACULTY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree Of MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY IN ELECTRONICS & COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING APRIL 2016
  2. 2. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT CERTIFICATE Certified that this project report titled “A HIGH-EFFICIENCY RESONANT SWITCHED CAPACITOR CONVERTER WITH CONTINUOUS CONVERSION RATIO” is the bonafide work of Mr. _____________Who carried out the research under my supervision Certified further, that to the best of my knowledge the work reported herein does not form part of any other project report or dissertation on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasion on this or any other candidate. Signature of the Guide Signature of the H.O.D Name Name
  3. 3. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT DECLARATION I hereby declare that the project work entitled “A HIGH-EFFICIENCY RESONANT SWITCHED CAPACITOR CONVERTER WITH CONTINUOUS CONVERSION RATIO” Submitted to BHARATHIDASAN UNIVERSITY in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the Degree of MASTER OF APPLIED ELECTRONICS is a record of original work done by me the guidance of Prof.A.Vinayagam M.Sc., M.Phil., M.E., to the best of my knowledge, the work reported here is not a part of any other thesis or work on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasion to me or any other candidate. (Student Name) (Reg.No) Place: Date:
  4. 4. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am extremely glad to present my project “A HIGH-EFFICIENCY RESONANT SWITCHED CAPACITOR CONVERTER WITH CONTINUOUS CONVERSION RATIO” which is a part of my curriculum of third semester Master of Science in Computer science. I take this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude to those who helped me in bringing out this project work. I would like to express my Director, Dr. K. ANANDAN, M.A.(Eco.), M.Ed., M.Phil.,(Edn.), PGDCA., CGT., M.A.(Psy.) of who had given me an opportunity to undertake this project. I am highly indebted to Co-Ordinator Prof. Muniappan Department of Physics and thank from my deep heart for her valuable comments I received through my project. I wish to express my deep sense of gratitude to my guide Prof. A.Vinayagam M.Sc., M.Phil., M.E., for her immense help and encouragement for successful completion of this project. I also express my sincere thanks to the all the staff members of Computer science for their kind advice. And last, but not the least, I express my deep gratitude to my parents and friends for their encouragement and support throughout the project.
  5. 5. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT ABSTRACT: A resonant switched capacitor converter with high efficiency over a wide and continuous conversion ratio range is introduced. The efficiency of the topology depends primarily on the conduction losses and is decoupled, to a large extent, from the voltage conversion ratio. This is an advantage over classical switched capacitor converters, for which the efficiency is strongly related to the conversion ratio. The operation principle applies three zero current switching states to charge, discharge, and balance the remaining charge of the flying capacitor. This results in a gyrator, i.e., a voltage-dependent current source, with a wide range of voltage conversion ratios (smaller as well as greater than unity) as well as bidirectional power flow capabilities. The analytical expressions for the conversion ratio and expected efficiency are provided and validated through simulations and experiments. The experimental verifications of the converter demonstrate peak efficiency of 96% and above 90% efficiency over a wide range of voltage gains and loading conditions. In addition, the system was found to be highly efficient at the extreme cases of both light and heavy loads
  6. 6. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT INTRODUCTION: Switched capacitor converters (SCCs) have limited capabilities for voltage regulation due to the tight relationship between the voltage gain and the converter efficiency. Regulation can be obtained either by varying SCC parameters, or inserting a post regulation stage to match the required conversion ratio. A more sophisticated approach for voltage regulation by SCC is to generate multiple conversion ratios and, therefore, increase the effective operation range; the system efficiency, however, would remain of a discrete nature. The multiple conversion ratios approach has shown advancement in the utilization of SCC, in particular as a high-efficiency first stage converter that may be followed by a reduced size local regulator. Resonant switched capacitor converter (RSCC) operation with zero current switching (ZCS) has been described in with the aim to reduce the switching losses, allowing higher switching frequency operation, potentially reducing the total volume of the converter. There, high efficiency is still obtained for discrete conversion ratios. The main challenge to create an output voltage that is different from the target voltage, in soft-switched SCC, is that the resultant charge balance of the flying capacitor(s) after a charge/discharge cycle is not zero. The residual charge left in the flying capacitor(s) prevents the system from converging to the desired voltage. This excess charge eventually increases/ decreases the output voltage such that the charge balance of all the capacitors will be satisfied which will drift the system off from the desired operation point. To better view this problem, consider a generic 1:1 RSCC with a desired output voltage of 0.8. The flying capacitor voltage and current are illustrated. The current waveform shows that although ZCS is obtained, the charge received from the source is not equal to the one delivered to the output.
  7. 7. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT This translates into an unbalanced capacitor voltage that continues to rise in every cycle. Studies with seemingly similar concept of circulating the residual charge were recently described in the literature with various realizations. In, a topology with an additional switching stage to internally circulate the charge is described. It is named “Sneak Circuit State,” to emphasize an inherent feature of the original RSCC configuration. Additional circuitry to circulate the charge was practiced . There, the operation of the converter was set above the resonant frequency exhibiting inductive behavior. This allows reversing the inductorcurrent using phase-shift control, which also regulates the power flow direction. In this case, however, soft switching cannot be guaranteed for the entire operation range. The work of Jabbari combines resonant and linear operations to completely discharge the energy of the LC tank in every switching cycle. There, the direction of the power flow is still dictated either by the system configuration or by the source of the higher potential.
  8. 8. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT EXISTING SYSTEM: Resonant switched capacitor converter (RSCC) operation with zero current switching (ZCS) with the aim to reduce the switching losses, allowing higher switching frequency operation, potentially reducing the total volume of the converter. There, high efficiency is still obtained for discrete conversion ratios. The main challenge to create an output voltage that is different from the target voltage, in soft-switched SCC, is that the resultant charge balance of the flying capacitor(s) after a charge/discharge cycle is not zero. The residual charge left in the flying capacitor(s) prevents the system from converging to the desired voltage. This excess charge eventually increases/decreases the output voltage such that the charge balance of all the capacitors will be satisfied which will drift the system off from the desired operation point.
  9. 9. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT PROPOSED SYSTEM: It was found that for the bridge configuration, the four-quadrant switches can be replaced by conventional MOSFETs, while retaining the converter characteristics. As a consequence, the switch count required for the converter is a total of four switches, comparable to conventional RSCC or non-inverting buck-boost configuration. It should be noted that for configurations that are implemented with two-quadrant switches, such as the bridge assembly, the insertion of a time delay between states for voltage regulation purposes has to be assigned to the proper state to avoid undesired circulating current. The delay should be located between states such that VC is at the correct polarity to block the conduction of the MOSFET diodes.
  10. 10. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT ADVANTAGES:  High reliable
  11. 11. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT BLOCK DIAGRAM:
  12. 12. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT TOOLS AND SOFTWARE USED:  MPLAB – microcontroller programming.  ORCAD – circuit layout.  MATLAB/Simulink – Simulation
  13. 13. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT APPLICATIONS:  Balancer/equalizer of energy cells.  Photovoltaic arrays.
  14. 14. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT CONCLUSION: Anovel resonant switched capacitor topologywas introduced. The converter demonstrates losses characteristics that are independent, to a large extent, of the voltage gain which is a unique feature among the switched capacitor-based converters. This attribute, resided thus far only in switched-inductor converters, has been realized in this paper by RSCC technology. As a result, this topology has a wide, continuous input to output voltage ratio (lower and higher than unity) without sacrificing the converter’s efficiency. This is an advantage over the switched capacitor’s technology that overcomes the dependency of the efficiency on the gain. Finally, the converter has a gyrator-like behavior, which is an advantage in current sourcing applications
  15. 15. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT REFERENCES: [1] S. Ben-Yaakov, “On the influence of switch resistances on switched capacitor converters losses,” IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron. Lett., vol. 59, no. 1, pp. 638–640, Jan. 2012. [2] S. Ben-Yaakov andM. Evzelman, “Generic and unifiedmodel of switched capacitor converters,” in Proc. IEEE Energy Convers. Congr. Expo., 2009, pp. 3501–3508. [3] M. Evzelman and S. Ben-Yaakov, “Average-current based conduction losses model of switched capacitor converters,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 28, no. 7, pp. 3341–3352, Jul. 2013. [4] M. S. Makowski and D. Maksimovic, “Performance limits of switchedcapacitor DC-DC converters,” in Proc. IEEE Power Electron. Spec. Conf., 1995, vol. 2, pp. 1215–1221. [5] M. D. Seeman and S. R. Sanders, “Analysis and optimization of switched capacitorDC-DC converters,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 841–851, Mar. 2008

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