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A comparison of dense region detectors for image search and fine grained classification

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Final Year IEEE Projects for BE, B.Tech, ME, M.Tech,M.Sc, MCA & Diploma Students latest Java, .Net, Matlab, NS2, Android, Embedded,Mechanical, Robtics, VLSI, Power Electronics, IEEE projects are given absolutely complete working product and document providing with real time Software & Embedded training......

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A comparison of dense region detectors for image search and fine grained classification

  1. 1. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY / KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: +91 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com A COMPARISON OF DENSE REGION DETECTORS FOR IMAGE SEARCH AND FINE-GRAINED CLASSIFICATION By A PROJECT REPORT Submitted to the Department of electronics &communication Engineering in the FACULTY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree Of MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY IN ELECTRONICS &COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING APRIL 2016
  2. 2. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY / KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: +91 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com CERTIFICATE Certified that this project report titled “A Comparison of Dense Region Detectors for Image Search and Fine-Grained Classification” is the bonafide work of Mr. _____________Who carried out the research under my supervision Certified further, that to the best of my knowledge the work reported herein does not form part of any other project report or dissertation on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasion on this or any other candidate. Signature of the Guide Signature of the H.O.D Name Name
  3. 3. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY / KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: +91 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com DECLARATION I hereby declare that the project work entitled “A Comparison of Dense Region Detectors for Image Search and Fine-Grained Classification” Submitted to BHARATHIDASAN UNIVERSITY in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the Degree of MASTER OF APPLIED ELECTRONICS is a record of original work done by me the guidance of Prof.A.Vinayagam M.Sc., M.Phil., M.E., to the best of my knowledge, the work reported here is not a part of any other thesis or work on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasion to me or any other candidate. (Student Name) (Reg.No) Place: Date:
  4. 4. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY / KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: +91 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am extremely glad to present my project “A Comparison of Dense Region Detectors for Image Search and Fine-Grained Classification” which is a part of my curriculum of third semester Master of Science in Computer science. I take this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude to those who helped me in bringing out this project work. I would like to express my Director,Dr. K. ANANDAN, M.A.(Eco.), M.Ed., M.Phil.,(Edn.), PGDCA., CGT., M.A.(Psy.)of who had given me an opportunity to undertake this project. I am highly indebted to Co-OrdinatorProf. Muniappan Department of Physics and thank from my deep heart for her valuable comments I received through my project. I wish to express my deep sense of gratitude to my guide Prof. A.Vinayagam M.Sc., M.Phil., M.E., for her immense help and encouragement for successful completion of this project. I also express my sincere thanks to the all the staff members of Computer science for their kind advice. And last, but not the least, I express my deep gratitude to my parents and friends for their encouragement and support throughout the project.
  5. 5. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY / KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: +91 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ABSTRACT: We consider a pipeline for image classification or search based on coding approaches like bag of words or Fisher vectors. In this context, the most common approach is to extract the image patches regularly in a dense manner on several scales. This paper proposes and evaluates alternative choices to extract patches densely. Beyond simple strategies derived from regular interest region detectors, we propose approaches based on superpixels, edges, and a bank of Zernike filters used as detectors. The different approaches are evaluated on recent image retrieval and fine-grained classification benchmarks. Our results show that the regular dense detector is outperformed by other methods in most situations, leading us to improve the state-of-the-art in comparable setups on standard retrieval and fined-grained benchmarks. As a byproduct of our study, we show that existing methods for blob and superpixel extraction achieve high accuracy if the patches are extracted along the edges and not around the detected regions.
  6. 6. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY / KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: +91 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com INTRODUCTION: Local image description is a popular research topic in computer vision, as it is involved in many applications such as image classification and particular object detection. Extracting local descriptors from an image consists of two steps. The detection step selects regions of interest, which are normalized into fixed-size patches. The description step produces a vector representation for each of the detected patches. The SIFT descriptor and its RootSIFT extension have been shown to perform very well for most applications. Many descriptors have been introduced in the last years to improve the description speed or descriptor compactness, such as SURF, CHOG or BRIEF. The matching accuracy is improved by learning the descriptor design. In this paper, we are solely interested in the detection stage and therefore adopt the gold-standard SIFT and RootSIFT. The early works in this line of research have focused on the detection of sparse interest points and regions, typicallyproducing a few thousand descriptors per image. These approaches aim at extracting distinctive and repeatable image parts, such as blobs and corners offering covariance properties: the same regions should be detected under some geometrical transformations. From a historical perspective, the choice of sparse representations was arguably motivated by the lack computational and memory resources. Although such methods perform well and are still widely used for image matching, they are not competitive in other application scenarios such as image classification. Local feature detection has recently shifted towards denser techniques. Dense sampling is an easy way to provide a large number of patches and a better coverage of the objects of interest. Fei-Fei and Perona were the first to show that dense patches leads to better classification accuracy. Argue that the key parameter for classification is the number of extracted patches. Similar conclusions hold for other tasks, like fine-grained classification or action recognition in videos. Recent works also evidence that methods for image and particular object retrieval, which traditionally rely on sparse regions typically extracted with the Hessian-Affine detector, are improved when using a larger set of descriptors. Nevertheless, regular dense sampling has serious limitations. Uniform sampling of patches ignores the image structure and extracts many uniform and uninformative patches. Additionally, the position of the features is less or not repeatable. This prevents the image engine from employing a spatial verification method, such as
  7. 7. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY / KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: +91 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com RANSAC which typically filters out many outliers by enforcing the spatial consistency of the detected regions. In this paper, our goal is to develop and evaluate dense detection strategies for image retrieval and fine-grained image classification. Our motivation is similar to that of Tuytelaars when she introduced “dense interest points” we consider solutions in between localized sparse interest points and dense strategies, in order to produce a large number of localized regions. We depart from using traditional evaluation metrics for detector evaluation, which do not reflect the final goal. For instance, the repeatability score reflects the effectiveness in detecting inliers, but is not directly related to the determination of class membership. Instead, we evaluate the performance with the metrics employed for the target application scenario: mean average precision for image retrieval and accuracy for fine-grained classification. We stress that better localized dense patches (see Figure 1) are more important for these tasksthan in traditional image classification: the objects are more repeatable and distinguishing between two classes often rely on tiny details that suffer from being loosely localized. We make the following contributions in this context of dense detection for image retrieval and fine-grained classification: 1) We propose strategies derived from standard interest point detectors (Harris, Hessian and DoG) to extract patches densely. In particular, we modify the detection process by relaxing the standard local maxima criterion so that it focuses on edges and not only corners. This, jointly with the optimization of the scaling factor, is shown to be a key to achieve higher performance. 2) We depart from the typical choice of fitting an ellipse to describe a region of interest extracted by blob detectors (MSER or super-pixels). Instead, we sample patches at several scales along the region’s borders. This increases the performance significantly when considering a large number of patches per image. We also show that sampling on the edges produced by a state-of-the-art edge detector offers competitive performance. 3) Finally, we propose two novel response filters to select the patch locations. First, we propose to use a bank of Zernike polynomials as detectors. These filters have been proposed to construct descriptors but to our knowledge not as detectors. Our second strategy is descriptor-oriented: the response for each pixel is simply the norm of local descriptor associated with the patch centered at this location. These two new approaches appear to perform best in most cases of our experiments.
  8. 8. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY / KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: +91 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com CONCLUSION: We investigated dense keypoint detection solutions that lie in between sparse interest points and dense sampling on auniform grid. We propose to modify existing interest point detectors by relaxing the cornerness criterion and the local maxima selection. We introduce a new detection method using Zernike filters, which provides dense, yet localized image patches. We also show that sampling patches on the borders of a region of interest performs better than the standard choice of fitting an ellipse and describing it by a single descriptor. Finally, we propose to detect dense patches by using the 2-norm of the descriptor instead of low-level pixel information. To our knowledge, this is the first detection strategy which focuses on descriptors, and the results seem very promising. Interestingly, solutions employing patches of multiple fixed scales perform better than patches detected as local maxima in the scale space. Albeit not scale invariant, apparently this option provides enough scale tolerance for the tasks of image retrieval and fine- grained classification. Compared with the existing studies, Zernike patches encoded with a standard technique, such as Fisher vectors, appear to outperform state of the art approaches for some of the fine-grained classification datasets. An exception is the Oxford-Flowers dataset that Zernike seem to perform poorly.
  9. 9. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI/ TRICHY / KARUR / ERODE / MADURAI / SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: +91 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111 ECWAY TECHNOLOGIES IEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com REFERENCES: [1] R. Achanta, A. Shaji, K. Smith, A. Lucchi, P. Fua, and S. Süsstrunk, “SLIC superpixels compared to state-of-the-art superpixel methods,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., vol. 34, no. 11, pp. 2274–2282, Nov. 2012. [2] Z. Akata, F. Perronnin, Z. Harchaoui, and C. Schmid, “Good practice in large-scale learning for image classification,” IEEE Trans. Pattern Anal. Mach. Intell., vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 507–520, Mar. 2013. [3] R. Arandjelovic and A. Zisserman, “Three things everyone should know to improve object retrieval,” in Proc. IEEE Conf. CVPR, Jun. 2012, pp. 2911–2918. [4] Y. Avrithis and K. Rapantzikos, “The medial feature detector: Stable regions from image boundaries,” in Proc. IEEE ICCV, Nov. 2011, pp. 1724–1731. [5] A. Babenko, A. Slesarev, A. Chigorin, and V. Lempitsky, “Neural codes for image retrieval,” in Proc. 13th ECCV, 2014, pp. 584–599. [6] H. Bay, A. Ess, T. Tuytelaars, and L. Van Gool, “Speeded-up robust features (SURF),” Comput. Vis. Image Understand., vol. 110, no. 3, pp. 346–359, Jun. 2008. [7] S. Branson, G. Van Horn, S. Belongie, and P. Perona. (2014). “Bird species categorization using pose normalized deep convolutional nets.” [Online]. Available: http://arxiv.org/abs/1406.2952.

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