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A cascade point of load dc dc converter with a novel phase shifted switched capacitor converter output stage

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Final Year IEEE Projects for BE, B.Tech, ME, M.Tech,M.Sc, MCA & Diploma Students latest Java, .Net, Matlab, NS2, Android, Embedded,Mechanical, Robtics, VLSI, Power Electronics, IEEE projects are given absolutely complete working product and document providing with real time Software & Embedded training......
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A cascade point of load dc dc converter with a novel phase shifted switched capacitor converter output stage

  1. 1. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI / TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE/ MADURAI/ SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIESIEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT A CASCADE POINT OF LOAD DC-DC CONVERTER WITH A NOVEL PHASE SHIFTED SWITCHED CAPACITOR CONVERTER OUTPUT STAGE By A PROJECT REPORT Submitted to the Department of electronics &communication Engineering in the FACULTY OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of the degree Of MASTER OF TECHNOLOGY IN ELECTRONICS &COMMUNICATION ENGINEERING APRIL 2016
  2. 2. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI / TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE/ MADURAI/ SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIESIEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT CERTIFICATE Certified that this project report titled “A CASCADE POINT OF LOAD DC-DC CONVERTER WITH A NOVEL PHASE SHIFTED SWITCHED CAPACITOR CONVERTER OUTPUT STAGE” is the bonafide work of Mr. _____________Who carried out the research under my supervision Certified further, that to the best of my knowledge the work reported herein does not form part of any other project report or dissertation on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasion on this or any other candidate. Signature of the Guide Signature of the H.O.D Name Name
  3. 3. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI / TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE/ MADURAI/ SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIESIEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT DECLARATION I hereby declare that the project work entitled “A CASCADE POINT OF LOAD DC-DC CONVERTER WITH A NOVEL PHASE SHIFTED SWITCHED CAPACITOR CONVERTER OUTPUT STAGE” Submitted to BHARATHIDASAN UNIVERSITY in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the Degree of MASTER OF APPLIED ELECTRONICS is a record of original work done by me the guidance of Prof.A.Vinayagam M.Sc., M.Phil., M.E., to the best of my knowledge, the work reported here is not a part of any other thesis or work on the basis of which a degree or award was conferred on an earlier occasion to me or any other candidate. (Student Name) (Reg.No) Place: Date:
  4. 4. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI / TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE/ MADURAI/ SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIESIEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am extremely glad to present my project “A CASCADE POINT OF LOAD DC-DC CONVERTER WITH A NOVEL PHASE SHIFTED SWITCHED CAPACITOR CONVERTER OUTPUT STAGE” which is a part of my curriculum of third semester Master of Science in Computer science. I take this opportunity to express my sincere gratitude to those who helped me in bringing out this project work. I would like to express my Director,Dr. K. ANANDAN, M.A.(Eco.), M.Ed., M.Phil.,(Edn.), PGDCA., CGT., M.A.(Psy.)of who had given me an opportunity to undertake this project. I am highly indebted to Co-OrdinatorProf. Muniappan Department of Physics and thank from my deep heart for her valuable comments I received through my project. I wish to express my deep sense of gratitude to my guide Prof. A.Vinayagam M.Sc., M.Phil., M.E., for her immense help and encouragement for successful completion of this project. I also express my sincere thanks to the all the staff members of Computer science for their kind advice. And last, but not the least, I express my deep gratitude to my parents and friends for their encouragement and support throughout the project.
  5. 5. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI / TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE/ MADURAI/ SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIESIEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT ABSTRACT: This paper presents the analysis, design, modelingand control of a cascaded two-stage step-down DC-DC converterwith a conventional synchronous buck converter in the firststage and a new phase shifted switched capacitor (PSSC) buckconverter in the second stage. Higher efficiency and higher powerdensity compared to the conventional multiphase buck converterare the prominent features of the proposed architecture whichmake it suitable as a Point of Load converter, widely used inpowering computing, communication and networking equipment.The first stage buck converter is operated at high switchingfrequency with extended duty ratio and is designed for highefficiency. The second stage PSSC converter with low inputvoltage attains high efficiency when operated at a fixed conversionratio with low switching frequency and a simple constant currentcharging technique. A laboratory prototype converter achieved apeak efficiency of 86:8% at 30 A load current while operating at12 V input voltage and 1:3 V output voltage. The capacitor-basedoutput power stage drastically reduces the number of inductorscompared to the multi-phase buck converter. A low frequencysmall signal model of the converter and a state feedbackcontroller for the output voltage are developed analytically. Theclosed-loop transient performance of the converter using this statefeedback controller is also verified experimentally.
  6. 6. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI / TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE/ MADURAI/ SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIESIEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT INTRODUCTION: Increasing need for higher currents at multiple low voltages has forced the power supply design engineers to come up with new power supply architectures. Intermediate bus architecture (IBA), offering significant cost savings and size reduction potential has emerged as a popular choice. The intermediate bus converter generates loosely regulated intermediate bus voltages in the range of 6 V to 12 V which, in turn, supplies the Point of Load (PoL) converters strategically placed near the load. These PoL converters must be highly efficient to achieve high overall power delivery efficiency. Proximity to the load and stringent transient specifications also require the PoL converters to be compact and provide fast response. Multi-phase interleaved synchronous buck converter has conventionally been adopted as the preferred single-stage PoL converter topology as it offers several benefits such as reduced input and the output current ripples, reduced filter capacitance requirement and even heat distribution. Multi-phase interleaved synchronous buck converter has conventionally been adopted as the preferred single-stage PoL converter topology as it offers several benefits such as reduced input and the output current ripples, reduced filter capacitance requirement and even heat distribution. However, this topology also suffers from some major drawbacks when operated with large load currents and wide voltage conversion range. These drawbacks are poor ripple current cancellation due to narrow duty cycle operation, increased phase current ripple, increased conduction and switching losses in the MOSFETs, increased conduction loss in the inductor etc.
  7. 7. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI / TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE/ MADURAI/ SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIESIEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT Moreover, this converter exhibits conflicting requirement of the phase inductance for satisfactory steady state and transient performance. To extend the duty ratio of single stage topologies, the coupled-inductor/transformer has been employed. Tapped Inductor Buck Winding-coupled buck Phase-shift buck on-isolated double ended topologies Nonisolated half bridg and other coupled converters as in are some of the duty ratio extended topologies reported in the literature. The addition of clamp components to recover the leakage energy makes these converter topologies complex and inefficient Also, converters employing magnetics suffer from low power density and control bandwidth unless operated at high switching frequency at the cost of reduced efficiency. Soft switching increases the efficiency of high frequency operated converters by eliminating the switching losses. A zero-voltage-switched non-isolated full-bridge converter and an asymmetrical buck converter both operating at 1 MHz, have reported higher efficiencies compared to the conventional two-phase buck converter in the complete load range. However, these converters suffer from low power density due to the additional magnetic components and low light load efficiency. Therefore, it has become imperative to investigate alternate DC-DC converter architectures for PoL application
  8. 8. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI / TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE/ MADURAI/ SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIESIEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT EXISTING SYSTEM: The Buck based topologies that use a coupled-inductor to extend the duty cycle. The major drawback of these topologies is that the voltage stress of the control MOSFET is higher than the input voltage, so an auxiliary circuit is often required to limit the voltage stress on the switches. Furthermore, these topologies operate in 2 hard switching mode, so switching losses prevent them from being suitable candidates at very high switching frequencies.
  9. 9. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI / TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE/ MADURAI/ SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIESIEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT PROPOSED SYSTEM: This paper presents a two-stage architecture for dc-dc PoL converters in which the first stage is a high frequency single phase synchronous buck converter designed for high efficiency. The second stage is a newly proposed PSSC buck converter. PSSC converter is operated at low switching frequency and fixed conversion ratio to attain high efficiency. The line and load regulations of the converter are achieved by adjusting the duty ratio of the first stage. Since the PSSC converter uses only one small output inductor, it is well suited for monolithic integration. Placing this converter at the output stage of the two-stage architecture drastically reduces the number of inductors and increases the power density.
  10. 10. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI / TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE/ MADURAI/ SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIESIEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT ADVANTAGES:  High efficiency.  High power density.
  11. 11. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI / TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE/ MADURAI/ SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIESIEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT BLOCK DIAGRAM:
  12. 12. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI / TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE/ MADURAI/ SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIESIEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT TOOLS AND SOFTWARE USED:  MPLAB – microcontroller programming.  ORCAD – circuit layout.  MATLAB/Simulink – Simulation.
  13. 13. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI / TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE/ MADURAI/ SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIESIEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT APPLICATIONS:  DC drives
  14. 14. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI / TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE/ MADURAI/ SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIESIEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT CONCLUSION: PoL converters designed for Intermediate Bus Architectureapplications require high efficiency and high power density.Conventionally used inductor-based topologies cannot simultaneouslymeet these two requirements due to the presence oflarge number of inductors. This paper proposed a hybrid, acombination of inductor-based and capacitor-based, two- stageconverter with reduced inductor count. The proposed convertercomprises a high frequency, high efficiency synchronous buckconverter in the first stage and a high efficiency, high powerdensity, newly proposed PSSC converter in the second stage.The PSSC converter is modular in architecture and is capableof achieving high efficiencies in the complete load range.Efficiency of the PSSC converter is improved by implementingthe constant current charging technique. Putting the PSSCbuck converter in the output stage reduces the inductor countand makes the topology suitable for monolithic integration.A laboratory prototype of the proposed converter is builtand the performance is verified experimentally. Efficiency ofthe proposed two-stage converter is greater than that of theconventional two-phase buck converter in the complete loadrange but less than a similar two-stage converter with theSC voltage divider in the first stage. Efficiency of the PSSCconverter can be further increased by integrating the lowvoltage PSSC cells in a low FoM CMOS process. Monolithicintegration will reduce not only the conduction losses but alsothe losses associated with the parasitic inductance. The smallsignalmodel of the proposed converter is derived and it isshown that the second stage PSSC converter does not introduceany small-signal dynamics. This helps in obtaining a goodtransient response. A closed-loop controller for the converterwith a full state observer and state feedback control schemeis designed and verified experimentally.
  15. 15. OUR OFFICES @CHENNAI / TRICHY/ KARUR / ERODE/ MADURAI/ SALEM / COIMBATORE / BANGALORE / HYDRABAD CELL: 9894917187 | 875487 1111 / 2111 / 3111 / 4111 / 5111 / 6111Visit: www.ecwaytechnologies.com | www.ecwayprojects.com Mail to: ecwaytechnologies@gmail.com ECWAY TECHNOLOGIESIEEE SOFTWARE | EMBEDDED | MECHANICAL | ROBOTICS PROJECTS DEVELOPMENT REFERENCES: [1] R. White, “Emerging on-board power architectures,” in Proc. IEEEApplied Power Electron. Conf., vol. 2, Feb 2003, pp. 799–804 vol.2. [2] L. Brush, “Distributed power architecture demand characteristics,” inProc. IEEE Applied Power Electron. Conf., vol. 1, 2004, pp. 342–345Vol.1. [3] Y. Panov and M. Jovanovic, “Design considerations for 12-v/1.5-v, 50-avoltage regulator modules,” IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 16, no. 6,pp. 776–783, Nov 2001. [4] X. Zhou, P.-L. Wong, P. Xu, F. Lee, and A. Huang, “Investigationof candidate vrm topologies for future microprocessors,” IEEE Trans.Power Electron., vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 1172– 1182, Nov 2000. [5] W. Yuan, G. X. Zhang, X. Xie, J. Zhang, and Z. Qian, “Linear-nonlinearavp control with larger inductance for vrm,” in Proc. IEEE AppliedPower Electron. Conf., Feb 2009, pp. 77–82.

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