Changes in other welfare indicators Welfare indicator early-1990s latest1. % population below $1.25 p.d. 51 302. under-five child mortality (per 1000) 120 1153. % underweight children 27 184. % below minimum dietary energy consumption 34 95. primary school enrolment ratio (%) 54 726. ratio of girls to boys in primary school (%) 85 997. one-year-olds immunised against measles 61 958. % births attended by skilled health personnel 44 509. access to improved drinking water (% of popn) 63 82
Conclusions• Ghana’s rapid poverty reduction mainly down to ‘Washington consensus’ approach• Economic mismanagement has a dreadful power to impoverish. It took 35 years for average incomes to recover.• The dominant importance of the overall policy framework and the economy’s response.
Conclusions (cntd)• Compatibility of rapid poverty reduction and opening up of the economy.• But a quarter of the population has been left out – the problem of the North• It may be worth distinguishing between functional and dysfunctional inequalities.