Navigating the  “national security” barrier: A human security agenda for  arms control in the 21st century Deepayan Basu Ray
Arms Control Frameworks <ul><li>Arms Control processes deliver three different types of outcomes:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(...
Adherence and Impact
Adherence and Impact
The “National Security Exception” <ul><li>Four ways in which the National Security Exemption manifests itself in defence a...
The Evidence
Non Reporters to the UN Register on Conventional Weapons Other key non-contributors to the UNRCA: Egypt China, Israel, Ira...
<ul><li>Thank you! </li></ul>For more information, please contact Deepayan Basu Ray at: DBasuRay@oxfam.org.uk
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Deepayan Basu Ray - Navigating the national security barrier

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Deepayan Basu Ray - Navigating the national security barrier
Presentation given at conference on 17/18 November in honour of Sir Richard Jolly

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  • Around the world, many arms transfers are appropriate = arms in the hands of responsible security forces and others who know their legal responsibilities and consistently apply them. =&gt; to protect their own citizens to contribute to national sovereignty and regional stability To protect civilians in danger abroad However…
  • Exacerbates human rights abuse Torture and Arbitrary Arrest Political Intimidation Forced to flee Abduction and hostage taking Exacerbates poverty by - Increase in refugees and internally displaced people Denies access to land, Restricts access to schools, hospitals, markets Destabilises economies Undermines development – More African resources are devoted to the arms trade than to health care Armed conflict costs Africa 18 billion per year
  • R egional agreemens: Some only have a limited scope of weapons and/or transfers Their implementation varies according to the actual technical capacity and political will of States and regional bodies Some regions &amp; countries are not submitted to any kind of arms exports controls regime
  • + Be diverted from its stated recipient; Facilitate terrorism, a pattern of gender-based violence, violent or organised crime ; Adversely affect regional security; Violate UN Charter obligations, including UN arms embargoes, or customary law rules relating to the use of force ; Breach other arms control agreements to which states involved in the transfer are a party
  • Deepayan Basu Ray - Navigating the national security barrier

    1. 1. Navigating the “national security” barrier: A human security agenda for arms control in the 21st century Deepayan Basu Ray
    2. 2. Arms Control Frameworks <ul><li>Arms Control processes deliver three different types of outcomes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(a) outright bans on certain types or categories of weapons, eg. the Landmines Treaty; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(b) regulatory frameworks that limit or control access/production/usage of certain types or categories of weapons, eg. NPT or PoA; and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(c) disarmament treaties which seek to demobilise and reduce stockpiles of certain types or categories of weapons, eg. Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties – START. </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Adherence and Impact
    4. 4. Adherence and Impact
    5. 5. The “National Security Exception” <ul><li>Four ways in which the National Security Exemption manifests itself in defence and security expenditure: </li></ul><ul><li>Extra-Budgetary funding enables non-accountable transactions and procurements of arms; </li></ul><ul><li>Reporting requirements for expenditure and procurement are kept weak and allow officials opportunities to be vague and non-transparent – discretional laws/rules/regulations are used to prevent comprehensive reporting; </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of comprehensive Defence Policy frameworks encourages ad-hoc and non-strategic budgeting and procurement; </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic and institutional corruption continues to undermine accountability frameworks; </li></ul>
    6. 6. The Evidence
    7. 7. Non Reporters to the UN Register on Conventional Weapons Other key non-contributors to the UNRCA: Egypt China, Israel, Iran, DPR Korea, Cuba, Indonesia, Myanmar, Libya, Syria, UAE, and Saudi Arabia. LIC 3.1 98 10.3% Burkina Faso LIC 2.5 127 15.8% Uganda LMIC 2.6 123 16% Armenia LMIC 3.8 68 18.1% Georgia UMIC 4.7 50 19.2% Jordan UMIC 3.5 78 20.9% Colombia HIC 9.3 1 27% Singapore WB Classification CPI Score CPI Rank MilEx as % of Cent Gov Exp
    8. 8. <ul><li>Thank you! </li></ul>For more information, please contact Deepayan Basu Ray at: DBasuRay@oxfam.org.uk

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