Covalent bonds - Chemistry

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Covalent bonds - Chemistry

  1. 1. Covalent Bond Covalent Bond Covalent Bond Covalent Bond Covalent Bond Covalent Bond Covalent Bond Covalent Bond Covalent Bond
  2. 2. • Bond that is usually formed between by • Non-metal such as hydrogen , carbon and oxygen do not lose electron from their outer shell . • They do not form positive ions by losing electrons . However their outer shells are incomplete. • Electron need to be added to the outer shells to attain the stability of the noble gas atoms. • When the atoms of two non-metals react , all the atom need to gain electrons to complete the octet shell of electrons. They can do this by sharing electrons between them . sharing of electronnon-metal atoms
  3. 3. Lewis Structure • Shows how the valence electrons of the atoms are arranged in the molecules . • Example a ) A helium atom has two valence electron *click to see He . . b ) A neon atom has eight valence electrons Ne:: . . . .
  4. 4. • Rules for Writing Lewis Structures i ) Add up the valence electrons of all the atom in the molecule. Example : CO2 : C : O O = 16 valence electrons ii ) Use a pair of electrons to form a bond between each pair of atoms iii ) Arrange it like this x x o o xx oo xx oo O : C : O xx xx xx oo oo oo
  5. 5. Another example : Hydrogen H H HH Ox
  6. 6. Other molecules the are held together by covalent bond
  7. 7. Chlorine Molecule
  8. 8. ClCl
  9. 9. Cl Cl
  10. 10. Cl Cl
  11. 11. Cl Cl
  12. 12. Cl Cl octet
  13. 13. Cl Cl octet
  14. 14. Cl Cl The octet is achieved by each atom sharing the electron pair in the middle
  15. 15. Cl Cl The octet is achieved by each atom sharing the electron pair in the middle
  16. 16. Cl Cl This is the bonding pair
  17. 17. Cl Cl It is a single bonding pair
  18. 18. Cl Cl It is called a SINGLE BOND
  19. 19. Double bond can also be shown as single dash Cl - Cl
  20. 20. Another example of Single Bond
  21. 21. Double Bond sometimes simple is better -_-
  22. 22. Oxygen
  23. 23. How will two oxygen atoms bond? OO
  24. 24. OO Each atom has two unpaired electrons
  25. 25. OO
  26. 26. OO
  27. 27. OO
  28. 28. OO
  29. 29. OO
  30. 30. OO
  31. 31. Oxygen atoms are highly electronegative. So both atoms want to gain two electrons. OO
  32. 32. Oxygen atoms are highly electronegative. So both atoms want to gain two electrons. OO
  33. 33. OO
  34. 34. OO
  35. 35. OO
  36. 36. OO
  37. 37. OO Both electron pairs are shared.
  38. 38. 6 valence electrons plus 2 shared electrons = full octet OO
  39. 39. 6 valence electrons plus 2 shared electrons = full octet OO
  40. 40. two bonding pairs, OO making a double bond
  41. 41. Double bond can also be shown as double dashes

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