Uit9 ppt ch09_au_rev

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  • Page 457
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  • Uit9 ppt ch09_au_rev

    1. 2. The Challenges of the Digital Age
    2. 3. 9.1 Truth Issues: Manipulating Digital Data <ul><li>Digital sound and images can be manipulated </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pros: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creates new forms of art </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Digital technology allows musicians to sing every track of a song and accompany themselves </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Morphing software makes one image morph into another </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Movie special effects are made possible </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adobe Photoshop allows changes, enhancements to photos </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cons: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Has made photographs and recordings untrustworthy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ News” can be faked </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    3. 4. 9.1 Truth Issues: Manipulating Digital Data <ul><li>Limitations of public databases: accuracy and completeness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You can’t get the whole story </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Start with a public database, THEN do more research </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The data is not necessarily accurate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cross-check against multiple sources </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each database service has boundaries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Know what those boundaries are </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Different keywords bring different results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>History is limited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Databases often begin with data from 1980 or later </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    4. 5. 9.2 Security Issues: Threats to Computers & Communications Systems <ul><li>Errors and Accidents </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Human errors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Humans often are not good at assessing their own information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Human emotions affect performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>People get frustrated </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Human perceptions are slower than the equipment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Information overload may also be a problem </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    5. 6. 9.2 Security Issues: Threats to Computers & Communications Systems <ul><li>Errors and Accidents ( continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Procedural errors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>When people fail to follow established procedures, errors can occur </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Software errors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Software bug: an error in a program that causes it not to work properly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Dirty data” problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Incomplete, outdated, or otherwise inaccurate data </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    6. 7. 9.2 Security Issues: Threats to Computers & Communications Systems <ul><li>Errors and Accidents ( continued ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Electromechanical problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical systems can wear out or become damaged </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They can also be badly designed or constructed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Power failures and surges can damage equipment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural hazards can lead to disasters </li></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    7. 8. 9.2 Security Issues: Threats to Computers & Communications Systems <ul><li>Computer Crimes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two types of computer crime: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Illegal act perpetrated against computers or telecommunications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use of computers or telecommunications to accomplish an illegal act </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    8. 9. 9.2 Security Issues: Threats to Computers & Communications Systems <ul><li>Computer Crimes ( continued ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theft of hardware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theft of software </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theft of online music and videos (piracy) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theft of time and services </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Theft of information: e.g., medical info, credit card info </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet-related fraud </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taking over your PC: zombies, botnets, and blackmail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crimes of malice: crashing entire systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attacks on power-control systems and attacks on the internet </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    9. 10. 9.2 Security Issues: Threats to Computers & Communications Systems <ul><li>Computer criminals may include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individuals or small groups who </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use fraudulent email and websites </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Steal peoples’ identities for monetary gains </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Show off their power for bragging rights </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Employees who </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have a grudge against their current or former employers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have a grudge against another employee </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sell their company’s secrets for personal profit </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Outside partners and company suppliers </li></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    10. 11. 9.2 Security Issues: Threats to Computers & Communications Systems <ul><li>Computer criminals ( continued ): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Corporate spies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organized crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cyberwar fighters </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Computer criminals do not include your employer, who is legally allowed to monitor the computers at work </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Check your company’s computer usage policy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure you follow the rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Know that any data you store in the computer at work – including emails – is company property </li></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    11. 12. 9.3 Security: Safeguarding Computers & Communications <ul><li>Security is a system of safeguards for protecting information technology against disasters, system failures, and unauthorized access that can result in damage or loss </li></ul><ul><li>Computer security’s five components: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Deterrence of computer crime </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification and access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encryption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection of software and data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disaster recovery plans </li></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    12. 13. 9.3 Security: Safeguarding Computers & Communications <ul><li>Deterrents to computer crime </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enforcing laws </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CERT: The Computer Emergency Response Team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provides round-the-clock information on international computer security threats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools to fight fraudulent and unauthorized online uses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rule-based detection software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Predictive-statistical-model software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Employee internet management software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Internet filtering software </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electronic surveillance </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    13. 14. 9.3 Security: Safeguarding Computers & Communications <ul><li>Deterrents to computer crimes ( continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification and access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Verify legitimate right of access by what you have, what you know, and who you are </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What you have: cards, keys, signatures, badges </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>What you know: PINs and passwords; callback provision </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Who you are: biometrics </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    14. 15. 9.3 Security: Safeguarding Computers & Communications <ul><li>Deterrents to computer crimes ( continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Encryption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The process of altering readable data into unreadable form to prevent unauthorized access </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Advantage: encrypting data that is available over the internet keeps thieves and crackers from reading it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disadvantage: encrypting data may prevent law-enforcement officials from reading the data criminals are sending to one another </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Discussion Questions: Does information privacy outweigh law enforcement’s needs to track down and prosecute criminals? Should we all encrypt our information to prevent crackers and criminals from stealing it?
    15. 16. 9.3 Security: Safeguarding Computers & Communications <ul><li>Deterrents to computer crimes ( continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection of software and data </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Restrict access to online files; use transaction logs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use audit controls to track who used what programs and servers, which files were opened, and so on </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Use people controls--screen applicants; do background checks; monitor internet, email, and computer usage; use shredders for discarded documents and materials </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    16. 17. 9.3 Security: Safeguarding Computers & Communications <ul><li>Deterrents to computer crimes ( continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Disaster-recovery plans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Method of restoring information-processing operations that have been halted by destruction or accident </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Back up everything; put mainframes in different locations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plans range in price and complexity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Automatically store data redundantly in two or more places </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Have an off-site computer-based data storage center with independent power supply </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    17. 18. 9.4 Quality-of-Life Issues <ul><li>Environmental Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturing computers and circuits can cause pollution </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hazardous toxins are involved in computer manufacture </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wireless devices can interfere in hospital activities and with medical devices </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Used computers/monitors contain chromium, cadmium, lead, mercury, PVC, and brominated flame retardants – all toxic substances that must be disposed of properly </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visual pollution is created by the forest of wireless towers, roof antennas, satellite dishes, etc.; birds and bats, other wildlife, and vegetation are affected </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nanotechnology carries possible risks on the molecular level </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    18. 19. 9.4 Quality-of-Life Issues <ul><li>Mental-Health Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Isolation: computer gamers may substitute online games for interpersonal interaction; videogame and internet addiction </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Online gambling is too easy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Many users find computers stressful and anger-inducing </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    19. 20. 9.4 Quality-of-Life Issues <ul><li>Protecting Children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pornography </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The internet has allowed the widespread distribution of sexually explicit material </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Online pornographers use pop-up ads, internet search engines to troll for new customers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This means that children may be exposed to porn when involved in innocent online searches </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parents may use online blocking software such as Cybersitter, Cyber Patrol, or Net Nanny to prevent this </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    20. 21. 9.4 Quality-of-Life Issues <ul><li>Protecting Children ( continued ) </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>They can also use DVD filters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Videogame rating systems </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The V-chip </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ xxx” web addresses </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    21. 22. 9.4 Quality-of-Life Issues <ul><li>Online Sexual Predators </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevention Strategies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Monitor children’s internet use </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be candid to children about the threats </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caution children about revealing too much information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tell them not to engage in sexting (online information and images NEVER go away; they are there forever) </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    22. 23. 9.4 Quality-of-Life Issues <ul><li>Cyberbullies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Another example of how information technology can negatively affect children </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When it happens: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Save the evidence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Block messages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contact an attorney or the police </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cyberbullying can also occur in the workplace </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    23. 24. 9.4 Quality-of-Life Issues <ul><li>Workplace Problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Misuse of technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Playing online games, shopping, writing personal emails, etc. interfere with workers’ productivity and can get them fired </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fussing with computers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dealing with hardware, software, and network connections can waste a lot of time, as can dealing with spam and the like </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Information overload </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>With so much available technology, people tend to work more hours and get swamped by too much information </li></ul></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.
    24. 25. 9.5 Economic & Political Issues <ul><li>Technology may affect the gap between the rich and the poor (“digital divide”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Most jobs require employees who are tech-savvy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People who are not tech-savvy won’t qualify for those jobs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technology is being used to replace employees in traditional jobs, traditionally filled by untrained workers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not everyone can afford computers and internet connectivity </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many governments censor internet content available in their countries but they can’t control all internet political activism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Internet is only loosely policed, so criminals take advantage </li></ul></ul>© 2011 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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