Introduction to Embedded Systems
A Washing Machine
A Mechatronics System
Embedded Systems (1)
• An embedded system is a computer based system which is
specifically designed to perform one or seve...
Embedded Systems (2)
• The central processing unit (CPU) of the embedded system is
the most important element of the syste...
Microcontroller Components (1)
•

•
•
•
•

CPU
– Ranging from small and simple 4-bit processors to complex 32- or 64bit pr...
Microcontroller Components (2)
• Discrete input and output bits, allowing control or detection
of the logic state of an in...
PIC18F4550 Microcontroller
• This is a general purpose 8-bit microcontroller
• Developed by Microchip Technology Inc.
• Us...
PIC18F4550 Microcontroller
Simplified Pin Diagram
PIC18F4550 Microcontroller (2)
For the operation of the chip it requires,
1. Power at +5V using pins 11 & 32.
Ground using...
Applications of the PIC18F4550 microcontroller
•
•
•

Sending and receiving digital signals using the digital I/O ports
Me...
Pins used for sending & receiving
digital signals
Pins used for receiving digital
signals
Measuring analog voltages using the
PIC18F4550 microcontroller
• There are 5 analog input pins.
• Marked pins can measure ...
Generating PWM signals for
driving DC motors
• The pin 16 (C1) could be used
to send PWM signals for
driving DC motors.
• ...
Microcontroller development tools: Hardware
PORT B

PORT D

GND

PORT C
VCC

LCD

POWER JACK

PIC 18F4550

BLUE TOOTH

USB...
Microcontroller development tools: Software
• IDE (Integrated Development Environment): A software
application that facili...
Embedded systemsc
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Embedded systemsc

  1. 1. Introduction to Embedded Systems
  2. 2. A Washing Machine
  3. 3. A Mechatronics System
  4. 4. Embedded Systems (1) • An embedded system is a computer based system which is specifically designed to perform one or several dedicated functions in real-time. • An embedded system comprises of a combination of computer hardware and software, perhaps additional parts, either mechanical or electronic that are designed to perform a dedicated task. • Characteristics of embedded systems – Comprises the least required resources – designed to execute a specific task – often interfaced with sensors in order to get feedback of process parameters – perform real time operations – designed to operate under harsh environments
  5. 5. Embedded Systems (2) • The central processing unit (CPU) of the embedded system is the most important element of the system. • The CPU is usually a processor. • Components of a CPU – Arithmetic logic unit (ALU) - performs arithmetic and logical operations – Control unit (CU) – extracts instructions from memory and decodes and executes them, calling on the ALU when necessary.. • Embedded systems are used in mobile phones, mp3 players, video game consoles, digital cameras, DVD players & GPS receivers use such embedded systems etc.
  6. 6. Microcontroller Components (1) • • • • • CPU – Ranging from small and simple 4-bit processors to complex 32- or 64bit processors. In-circuit programming and debugging support. Clock generator – often an oscillator for a quartz timing crystal, resonator or RC circuit. Random-access memory (RAM) – Type of volatile memory for data storage. Read-only memory (ROM), – Erasable programmable read only memory (EPROM) – Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory (EEPROM) – Flash memory for program and operating parameter storage.
  7. 7. Microcontroller Components (2) • Discrete input and output bits, allowing control or detection of the logic state of an individual package pin. • Serial input/output such as serial ports (UARTs). – I²C, – Serial Peripheral Interface (SPI) – Controller Area Network (CAN) for system interconnect • Peripherals such as timers, event counters. • Pulse width modulation (PWM) generators. • Analog-to-digital converters and digital-to-analog converters.
  8. 8. PIC18F4550 Microcontroller • This is a general purpose 8-bit microcontroller • Developed by Microchip Technology Inc. • Uses an 8-bit data bus which makes it possible to access 8 bits of data in a single machine instruction cycle. • This microcontroller has a speed of 12 MIPS. • This microcontroller has 40 pins.
  9. 9. PIC18F4550 Microcontroller
  10. 10. Simplified Pin Diagram
  11. 11. PIC18F4550 Microcontroller (2) For the operation of the chip it requires, 1. Power at +5V using pins 11 & 32. Ground using pins 12 & 31. 2. A precise clock input provided by a crystal oscillator with an input frequency of 20 MHz connected to pins 13 (CLKI) and 14 (CLKO). • This chip uses a Phase Lock Loop (PLL) frequency multiplier boost the operating frequency of the chip to 48 MHz.
  12. 12. Applications of the PIC18F4550 microcontroller • • • Sending and receiving digital signals using the digital I/O ports Measuring analog voltages from +0V – +5V. Sending PWM signals for driving dc motors
  13. 13. Pins used for sending & receiving digital signals
  14. 14. Pins used for receiving digital signals
  15. 15. Measuring analog voltages using the PIC18F4550 microcontroller • There are 5 analog input pins. • Marked pins can measure analog voltages between +0 V & +5 V. • Analog voltages are measured by using analog to digital converters (ADC). • The ADC has a resolution of 10bits. i.e.: analog +0 V -> digital 0 analog +5 V -> digital 1023
  16. 16. Generating PWM signals for driving DC motors • The pin 16 (C1) could be used to send PWM signals for driving DC motors. • It has a digital resolution of 10-bits (0-1023 in decimal). • The frequency of the PWM signal is 2.44 kHz.
  17. 17. Microcontroller development tools: Hardware PORT B PORT D GND PORT C VCC LCD POWER JACK PIC 18F4550 BLUE TOOTH USB PUSH BUTTONS PORT A PORT E
  18. 18. Microcontroller development tools: Software • IDE (Integrated Development Environment): A software application that facilitates all aspects developing of embedded software. – Source code editor. – A compiler. – A debugger. • Software interface for loading the compiled code into the microcontroller.

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