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Bahan Paparan Narasumber di Dialog Nasional ID-IGF

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EK-2 E commerce, dan perjanjian perdagangan

  1. 1. E-Commerce, dan Perjanjian Perdagangan Lutfiyah Hanim 27 September - Satu Dunia Part time consultant –Third world network
  2. 2. E-commerce – reality on the ground • Digital world, Digital economy, hyperconnected world, era of global flow, Digitalisation, etc • Amazon, Flipkart, Alibaba, rakuten, dll • Google, Facebook, dll • MGI of mc Kinsey – 360 juta orang terlibat dalam global world of ecommerce, 12% global goods trade is cross border ecommerce,
  3. 3. E-commerce – reality on the ground • Dimana posisi negara berkembang, Indonesia dalam hal ini dalam ecommerce competitiveness? • Tantangan bagi pemasok lokal? • Basic infrastructure? • Digital divide? • Bagaimana model perdagangan digital/21 century trade model dapat mendukung pembangunan
  4. 4. Banyak Jalan menuju Roma... E-Commerce • WTO (World Trade Organization) – TiSA (trade in services agreement) – Perundingan - NO MANDATE for Negotiations only Discussion • FTA (free trade agreement) – RCEP (regional conference on economic partnership) – under negotiation – Indonesia menjadi salah negara peserta perundingan; – TPPA (trans-pacific partnership – Agreed, Indonesia tidak menjadi salah satu anggotanya – FTA lainnya...
  5. 5. E-Commerce (dalam WTO) • September 1998, the General Council adopted the Work Programme on Electronic Commerce. • Definition of electronic commerce: The Work Programme on Electronic Commerce states that: "Exclusively for the purposes of the work programme, and without prejudice to its outcome, the term 'electronic commerce' is understood to mean the production, distribution, marketing, sale or delivery of goods and services by electronic means". • Four WTO bodies were charged with the responsibility of carrying out the Work Programme: – the Council for Trade in Services; – the Council for Trade in Goods; – the Council for TRIPS; – and the Committee on Trade and Development. • TiSA (Indonesia tidak ikut, tetapi ini juga berhenti ....Gagal
  6. 6. Aturan yang diminta oleh para proponen... • No customs duties, total liberalisasi on digital product – non discrimination; • Enabling cross data flows; • Promoting free and open internet; • No localisation barrier; – No localisation of server; – No commercial presence; – No local content requirements;
  7. 7. Aturan yang diminta oleh para proponen... Technology issues • No technology transfer; • No technology local content; • No source codes disclosure – • Ensuring technology choices, • Safeguarding network competition
  8. 8. Ecommerce in RCEP • Perundingan tertutup – draft tidak bisa dibaca/dianalisa oleh selain oleh juru runding • Ecommerce text didukung oleh chapter lain (yang juga tertutup): – Chapter trade in services - negative list, no new regulation on new services – Transparancy annex – right to comment on proposed regulation
  9. 9. E-commerce dalam Trade Agremeent • Keseragaman pengaturan di negara anggota – one size fits all; • Non discrimination, (MFN – most favor nation dan National Treatment) • Keterkaitan dengan perjanjian lain dalam kesepakatan, misalnya – perjanjian investasi, – trade in services, – dispute settlement • Ruang kebijakan yang mengecil – mengunci kebijakan di masa depan.
  10. 10. Beberapa pasal dalam TPPA • Cross Border Data Transfers by Electronic Means Article 14.11 • Location of Computing Facilities (Article 14.13 • Personal Information Protection (Article 14.8) • Principles on Access to and Use of the Internet for Electronic Commerce -Net Neutrality (Article 14.10) • Custom Duties (Article 14.3) electronic transmissions are not subject to customs duties which would prevent countries from Imposing custom duties on any digital product or services(e.g., e-books, software, games, music, and video, whether distributed online or fixed on a carrier medium).
  11. 11. Beberapa pasal dalam TPPA • Non Discriminatory Treatment of Digital Products (Article 14.4) • Electronic Authentication and Signatures and Transactions (Articles 14.5 and Article 14.6) • Unsolicited Commercial Electronic Messages (Article 14.14) • Publicizing Source Code (Article 14.17) prevents governments from requiring the disclosure of source code as a condition of import, distribution, sale or use of software or of products containing software. This prohibition only applies to “mass market” software or products and does not include software used for “critical infrastructure”. Neither term is defined.
  12. 12. Case studies - Africa • Nigeria, Kenya dan South Africa; • Difficulty with international banking transaction; • Exclusion from internationl e-market places or platforms; • Infrastructures deficit (i.e – electricity supply, IT readiness – low education, illiteracy, low level connectivity, • Inexperience with sales tax and import duties • Sociopolitical barrier – i.e language barrier, customer services orientation, • Digital divide,
  13. 13. Beberapa sumber informasi • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=klU1JF98 GfQ • https://morningconsult.com/2016/11/14/inte rnet-firms-lay-wish-list-trump-white-house/ • South Centre, WTOs discussion on electronic commerce, 2017. Jenewa. Swiss.

Bahan Paparan Narasumber di Dialog Nasional ID-IGF

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