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idigf - hukum - ui - edmon makarim

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Materi presentasi Indonesia Internet Governance Forum (ID-IGF) - Jakarta, 1 November 2012. Situs: http://id-igf.or.id

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idigf - hukum - ui - edmon makarim

  1. 1. Cyberlaw and Sovereignty Oleh : Dr. Edmon Makarim, S.Kom, SH, LLM
  2. 2. Outline• Apakah substansi Cyberlaw = Internet Governance ? – Law of Info-comm sesungguhnya lebih luas dari Internet Law – Internet Governance adalah tata kelola pemanfaatan Internet utk melindungi dan mengembangkan kepentingan nasional (bangsa dan negara)• Apa dan bagaimana “trustworthiness” terhadap Internet ..? – Sejauhmana cybersecurity => accountability + responsibility/liability• Apakah yang selayaknya menjadi Fokus Materi – Hukum dalam arti luas ataukah dalam arti sempit ?• Apakah yang menjadi “mimpi” atau cita-cita besar kita sebagai bangsa dan negara dengan pemanfaatan Internet ? – Melihat posisi strategis maka tampaknya kita layak menjadi Hub atau bahkan mungkin Sentra komunikasi dan informasi dunia.
  3. 3. Source: Jovan Kurbalija, An introduction to Internet Governance, Diplo Foundation
  4. 4. Law of Information & Communication Sistem hukum yang berlaku dalam konteks cyberspace.ICT Law => Telematika Cyberspace law Cybersecurity E-commerce cybercrime E-government Sources: Cybersecurity (ITU) + Redesigning E-gov
  5. 5. Keterpaduan Paradigma ICT Law/Cyber Law/Internet Law + Internet GovernanceCyber Law Paradigm: Internet Governance Ethics & Law of ICTLibertarian vs Paradigm (global common good/national public interest): Paternalistic / (main issues,5 • Privacy, Conservative basket): • Accuracy,• Sistem hukum yang • Resources • Property, berkenaan dengan • Economy • Accessibility/ Availability cyberspace baik dalam • Legal • Responsibility lingkup nasional • Development • Accountability maupun internasional. • Due Process • Socio-cultural • Liability• (Andrew Murray, (Jovan Kurbalija) (AM De joie et.al + Kenneth C Cyberspace Laudon Regulation) Global Cybersecurity Agenda (ITU) Indonesian Commitment to Internet Governance + Law of Info-comm
  6. 6. Internet GovernanceThe WGIG Report (2004), Jovan Kurbalija Fokus Materi IGF alaIdentified four main areas (five baskets) Indonesia• Issues related to infrastructure and the Perspektif hukum dalam arti luasmanagement of critical Internet Infrastruktur danresources. Standarisasi bukan dalam arti sempit• Isues related to the use of the Internet • Constitutional Rights and ICTincluding spam network security and Legal:cybercrime. -Jurisdiction (New Technologies) => Privacy & - Cybercrime (include IPR’s) Data Protection - Alternative Dispute Resoultion• Issues relevant to the Internet but have • Internet Cryptography + Securityan impact much wider than the Internet Economyand for which existing organisations are • Infrastruktur & Standarisasiresponsible such as in Intellectual • E-government + e-IDproperty right (IPR) or international trade. Management (access to e-public• Issues related tot the developmental services)aspects of Internet governance in Development • E-commerce + ADRparticular capacity building in developingcountries. • Cyber-crime (including IPR) Socio Cultural • Jurisdiction
  7. 7. Constitutional Rights & ICT Intenational Instruments of Human Rights: • Freedom of ExpressionEthics: • Access to knowledge• Privacy, • Access to technology• Accuracy, • Access to administration• Property, • Privacy, Dignity & Reputation• Accessibility/Availability • Right Against Self-Incrimination Constitution • Due Process of Law Other• Responsibility• Accountability UUD-NRI 1945 Countries• Due Process (Amend 1-4) Constitution• Liability Public Interest and Individual Rights: Public Trust Obligation • Freedom of Expression • Privacy (Anonymity, Reputation) • Freedom of Expression and the Press • Property • Public infrastructure • Access to Public Information • Administration • Rights Against Self Incrimination • E-voting • Security Legislation Products and Cases
  8. 8. Keranjang Hukum• Fokus Materi (pemanfaatan internet yang sesuai dengan kepentingan nasional)1. Yurisdiksi => Ekstra-teritorial + multilateral2. Keberlakuan HKI (Hak Cipta)3. Keamanan critical public infrastructure4. Cybercrime (Mutual Legal Assistance)5. Alternative Online Dispute Resolution => Badan Arbitrase + BPSK
  9. 9. Fokus Materi (1) dampak Crossborder: Sovereignty  Jurisdiction (Negara Mana Yang Berhak Menghukum ?) • Warga Negara Siapa ? • Dimana dilakukannya (apakah delik formil) ? • Dimana Victim dan Akibat serious damages-nya (apakah delik materil) dan bgmn kepentinga nasionalnya ? • Dimana bukti dapat diperoleh ? • Dimana Suspect dapat ditangkap? • adakah perjanjian ekstradisi ? • Dimana Ancaman Pidana Yang Sesuai Nilai Keadilan • Dimana Fair Trial / impartial Transfer of Proceedings
  10. 10. Fokus Materi (2) : Property vs Propriety • Mungkinkah IP Abuse => – Larangan melanggar Kepentingan ekonomi nasional + unfair competition – Jangan membuat barriers for access to knowledge – Jangan mensalahgunakan Pendaftaran, Pencatatan krn vs Prinsip Originalitas Ciptaan – Sham litigation => eksploitasi • Kriminalisasi Pelanggaran – TRIPS mengamanatkan piracy on commercial scale bukan commercial use ?• Indonsia perlu Aturan ttg IP Abuse• Indonesia perlu membuat Watchlist Source: Jovan Kurbalija, An introduction to Internet Governance
  11. 11. Spectrum of License All rights Public Domain: reserved - Moral right - Economical RightsHaruskah didaftarkan ?
  12. 12. Fokus Materi (3) : Security + National e-Authentication Perlu aturan ttg • Kebijakan Kriptografi • classified Information • Privacy & Data Proteksi • National Root CA + BridgeCA • National Gateway ? Cross Recognition Models Regulations of PKI • Self-Regulation =>communities PKI • “Mesh” PKI => Peer-to-peer • “bridge” CSP.
  13. 13. Fokus Materi (5) =Conducive/Cost Effective + Efficiency Economy + ADR• Penerapan e-Apostile (Hague Agreement 1961) => Mengilangkan Inefisiensi Lintas Authenticity Document utk National dan International Private Transaction => Cybernotary/e-Notary (setidaknya untuk RA dan pembuatan salinan otentik elektronik)• Cost effective terhadap Tax (reporting dan clearing house dan Duty- stamp ?• Voluntary Accreditation/Accredited-List bagi para penyelenggara layanan (IS Provider) dan Profesional Penunjang TIK• Forum dan Mekanisme untuk Coercive Self-Regulation• Kejelasan aturan E-payment system dan e-Transferable Records (e- money)• Komitmen untuk mengembangkan National Data Centre• Consumer Protection Right => White-list (paling tidak harus ada notice, choice dan consent serta jaminan limitation purpose dan “preventing harm”)• Mediasi dan Arbitrase => BAM-HKI dan Badan Penyelesaian Sengketa Konsumen
  14. 14. Terima Kasih
  15. 15. LAMPIRAN
  16. 16. Konvergensi Industri• Telematics Convergence => content, network & services – Industry restructure <=> ICT/multimedia orientation – Scope of content industry => digital works & services (text, US$ 25.000 picture/images, audio, Enthropia video, etc) Universe • Database • Computer program • Games • news • E-book • Photograph US$ 800.000 US$ 299 • Music Point Blank Virtual Wolrd of Warcraft • Paintings • Maps Property • etc
  17. 17. (ITU => Cybersecurity)• “Cybersecurity is the collection of tools, policies, security concepts, security safeguards, guidelines, risk management approaches, actions, training, best practices, assurance and technologies that can be used to protect the cyber environment and organization and user’s assets. – [Organization and user’s assets include connected computing devices, personnel, infrastructure, applications, services, telecommunications systems, and the totality of transmitted and/or stored information in the cyber environment].• Cybersecurity strives to ensure the attainment and maintenance of the security properties of the organization and user’s assets against relevant security risks in the cyber environment. The general security objectives comprise the following: Availability; Integrity,( which may include authenticity and non-repudiation); Confidentiality• The Global Cybersecurity Agenda has seven main strategic goals, built on five work areas: 1) Legal Measures => cybercrime legislation 2) Technical and Procedural Measures => End users and businesses (direct approach); and Service providers and software companies 3) Organizational Structures => highly developed organizational structures, avoid overlapping, 4) Capacity Building & User’s education => public campaigns + open communication of the latest cybercrime threats 5) International Cooperation => Mutual Legal Assistance of the LEA’s
  18. 18. Extra Teritorial Jurisdiction• Pasal 2 : Undang-undang ini berlaku untuk : – Setiap orang yang melakukan perbuatan hukum sebagaimana diatur dalam UU ITE; – Baik yang berada di wilayah hukum Indonesia maupun di luar wilayah hukum Indonesia; – Yang memiliki akibat hukum di wilayah hukum Indonesia dan/atau diluar wilayah hukum Indonesia dan merugikan kepentingan Indonesia. Crime Merugikan kepentingan Indonesia: meliputi & tidak terbatas pada merugikan kepentingan Ekonomi indonesia, perlindungan data strategis, harkat dan martabat bangsa, pertahanan & keamanan negara, kedaulatan negara, warga negara, serta badan hukum Indonesia. 18
  19. 19. Ketahanan Bangsa mampukah menghadapi AGHT => pengaruh dari luar dan mengendalikan hasrat dari dalam …???• Orang => Warga • Privacy, Dignity & Reputation Negara, Bangsa (HAM setiap orang) dan Negara• Sumber Daya • Kesejahteraan (ps33 UUD 45) dan Utilitas Publik• Pemerintah dan • Melindungi atau menghianati Sistem Hukum konstitusi (cita2 luhur bangsa)

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