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ID IGF 2016 - Hukum 3 - Peran Negara dalam Kedaulatan Siber


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Presented by Kristiono (Masyarakat Telematika / Mastel)
ID IGF 2016
Sesi Hukum 3 - Mewujudkan Kedaulatan dan Ketahanan Siber Indonesia
Jakarta, 15 November 2016

Published in: Internet
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ID IGF 2016 - Hukum 3 - Peran Negara dalam Kedaulatan Siber

  1. 1. Masyarakat Telematika Indonesia (mastel) @ID-IGF 2016, BPPT, Jakarta, 15.11.2016 Mewujudkan Kedaulatan dan Kemandirian Digital Indonesia
  2. 2. Pendahuluan  Internet: An Evolving Ecosystem  Internet Governance: the working Definition Perdebatan Internet Governance di Fora International  WSIS 2005 >> WCIT 2012 >> WTPF 2013 Berbagai Pendekatan Negara dalam Internet Governance Rekomendasi Mastel 2
  3. 3. 3
  4. 4. 4
  5. 5.  It all started in the cold war: USA government wanted to have a robust data and information exchange infrastructure (separate from telephone network); it was supposed to survive a nuclear war!  ARPANET was the first realisation although communication protocols could not run over multiple networks  much research started culminating into the TCP/IP protocols: IP does the packet switching over the network while TCP creates a peer- to-peer link  Many universities adopted TCP/IP for their computer infrastructure  Up till early 90-ies, The Internet was used by people from academia, government, and industrial rsearchers  Tim Berners-Lee (CERN) invented the WWW which became easily accessible by the first ‘Mosaic’ browser using the http protocol  ISPs made the WWW accessible to the public during the 1990s. November 15, 2016 5
  6. 6. hardware architecture November 15, 2016 7
  7. 7. software protocol suite  Layered structure (separation of duties!!)  Lowest 3 layers (Link, Internet and Transport ) provide a reliable communication channel between any pair of Internet nodes (all having an IP address)  Highest layer (often layered itself!) provides data & information sources & services including email, teletekst, FTP, chat, 2nd life, all WWW-services (accessible with a browser), skype, youtube, pirate bay, scholar google, marktplaats, amazon, cheaptickets, partypooker, banking,… a (virtual (?)) world on it’s own!! November 15, 2016 8
  8. 8.  The World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) came up with the following working definition of Internet governance:  Internet governance is the development and application by governments, the private sector, and civil society, in their respective roles, of shared principles, norms, rules, decision-making procedures, and programmes that shape the evolution and use of the Internet. 9
  9. 9. WSIS 2005  b) that, as per paragraph article 35 of the Tunis Agenda, that the management of the Internet encompasses both technical and public policy issues and should involve all stakeholders and relevant intergovernmental and international organizations. In this respect, it is recognized that:  i) Policy authority for Internet-related public policy issues is the sovereign right of States. They have rights and responsibilities for international Internet- related public policy issues;  ii) The Private Sector has had, and should continue to have, an important role in the development of the Internet, both in the technical and economic fields;  iii) Civil Society has also played an important role on Internet matters, especially at community level, and should continue to play such a role;  iv) Intergovernmental organizations have had, and should continue to have, a facilitating role in the coordination of Internet-related public policy issues; and  v) International organizations have also had, and should continue to have, an important role in the development of Internet-related technical standards and relevant policies. 11 2 isu sentral: Peran Negara Multi- stakeholderism
  10. 10. 12 Keterlibatan negara pada Institusi Multistakeholder ICANN
  11. 11. WCIT 2012 1. Special measures for landlocked developing countries 2. Globally harmonized national emergency number 3. Fostering an enabling environment for the greater growth of the Internet (controversial) 4. Periodic review of the ITRs 5. International telecommunication service traffic termination and exchange Note: these are not the actual titles of the Resolutions. All are new. All old Resolutions, Recommendations, and the Opinion were suppressed.
  12. 12.  151 countries in Dubai  strong participation in negotiations  richer, more representative and more powerful treaty  Discussions about Internet governance revealed the full complexity of this issue  Government and market forces were represented at WCIT-12  This resulted in an extremely valuable exchange of views and ideas  Compromise outcome:  Signed by 89 governments out of 144 accredited to sign  More are expected to join WCIT-2012: ITU as a global convener
  13. 13. Sikap Resmi Indonesia
  14. 14.  Tunis Agenda (WSIS) paragraph 55:  “Policy authority for Internet-related public policy issues is the sovereign right of States. They have rights and responsibilities for international Internet-related public policy issues.”  Resolution 102:  the role of governments includes providing a clear, consistent and predictable legal framework, in order to promote a favourable environment in which global ICT networks are interoperable with Internet networks and widely accessible to all citizens without any discrimination and to ensure adequate protection of public interests in the management of Internet resources, including domain names and addresses
  15. 15. WTPF 2013 The Chairman of the Forum presented the Draft Opinions, which had been revised and endorsed by the Working Groups. He invited the Forum to adopt the following Opinions:  Opinion 1: Promoting Internet Exchange Points (IXPs) as a long term solution to advance connectivity  Opinion 2: Fostering an enabling environment for the greater growth and development of broadband connectivity  Opinion 3: Supporting Capacity Building for the deployment of IPv6  Opinion 4: In Support of IPv6 Adoption and Transition from IPv4  Opinion 5: Supporting Multi-stakeholderism in Internet Governance  Opinion 6: On supporting operationalizing the Enhanced Cooperation Process 17
  16. 16. Opinion 5 multistakeholderism Internet Governance  recalling  Paragraph 34 of the Tunis Agenda for the Information Society (Tunis Agenda) which provides a working definition of Internet Governance as the development and application by Governments, the Private Sector and Civil Society, in their respective roles, of shared principles, norms, rules, decision-making procedures, and programmes that shape the evolution and use of the Internet,  recognizing  a) that, paragraph 37 of the Tunis Agenda seeks to improve the coordination of the activities of international and intergovernmental organizations and other institutions concerned with Internet governance and the exchange of information among themselves. It states that a multi-stakeholder approach should be adopted, as far as possible, at all levels. 18
  17. 17.  is of the view  that it is important to further implement multi-stakeholder practices as outlined in the relevant paragraphs of the Tunis agenda,  invites Member States and other stakeholders  to explore ways and means for greater collaboration and coordination between governments; the private sector, international and intergovernmental organizations, and civil society, as well as greater participation in multistakeholder processes, with a view to ensure that the governance of the Internet is a multi-stakeholder process that enables all parties to continue to benefit from the Internet;  to contribute based on their roles and responsibilities as stated in paragraph 35 of the Tunis Agenda;  to focus in particular on how to improve the participation of developing country stakeholders in the initiatives, entities, organizations and institutions involved in various aspects of Internet Governance. 19
  18. 18. Berbagai Definisi “Cyberspace
  19. 19.  Governance Spectrum  Voluntary vs. Regulatory Approach Bagaimana Pendekatan yg sebaiknya diambil Indonesia ?
  20. 20. As a global domain within the information environment consisting of the interdependent network of information technology infrastructure including the internet, telecommunication network, computer systems and embedded processor and controllers What is Cyber Space?
  21. 21. Sovereignty  The supreme political authority of an independent state (block's law dictionary) Resilience  The strength and capacity to respond to, cope with, and grow through adversity What is Sovereignty & Resilience?
  22. 22. Cyber space require regulation and oversight Financial relationship in cyber space need law to govern those relationship and transaction Content sent through cyber space hold significance in the real world State required to assert their presence in cyber space as a matter of national security Is Cyber Space Immune from State Sovereignty?
  23. 23. Recognizing cyber space as a sovereign domain Wanting sovereignty in cyber space Civilian expectation Technical issues  Creating system that can specifically identify actors in cyber space and govern all actors related (i.e: data protection and privacy, OTT, consumer protection, net neutrality applied)  Establishing a cyber space border that a state can both monitor and control How to Realized Sovereignty in Cyber Space
  24. 24.  Sebagai entitas utama yang bertanggung jawab atas proteksi hak-hak dasar dan kebebasan warga negaranya, negara harus mengambil peran sentral dan krusial dalam Internet governance dan pembuatan hukum untuk kegiatan online.  Setiap negara memiliki pendekatan masing-masing dalam memformulasi strateginya untuk cyberspace, termasuk untuk perlindungan HAM dan kebebasan atas Internet.  Pada dasarnya perbedaan tersebut terkait dengan keseimbangan dengan hak-hak lain, dan terkait dengan national interest.
  25. 25.  Internet bukanlah cloud (awan), melainkan infrastruktur fisik yang terhubung dalam network of networks.  Meskipun pada level aplikasi sering dikatakan borderless, tidak berarti negara tidak punya pengaruh dan wewenang. Melalui infrastruktur fisik yang di atasnya internet beroperasi, pengaruh dan kewenangan negara secara territorial harus tetap dipertahankan.  Bagaimana berkoneksi, mana trafik yang diprioritaskan, apa manfaat yang dapat diambil termasuk bagian yang harus diperjelas dalam Internet governance.
  26. 26.  Selain perlunya penguatan strategi nasional untuk dunia cyber, perlu juga diperhatikan strategi internet governance pada dimensi international.  Diantara isu penting dalam internet governance pada dimensi international adalah upaya untuk mengakhiri pengaruh yang berlebih pemerintah US atas administrasi Internet.  Harus dipahami bahwa pada level international, perdebatan tentang Internet Governance sangat serius, bahkan disebut Global War.
  27. 27.  Mendukung pelaksaan Article 35 Tunis Agenda, terutama 35(a).  Melakukan kajian internal Isu Public Policy dalam Internet Governance, khususnya memperjelas domain Governments Role dan Intergovernment role. Kajian lanjutan bisa melibatkan berbagai stakeholders.  Mengingat isu Internet Governance di UN, sudah melebar dalam berbagai arena. Indonesia perlu mendalami Pros-Cons di tiap arena (termasuk ITU, IGF dan CSTD) dan koordinasi dengan pihak terkait mengenai bentuk partisipasi Indonesia.  ITU : WSIS, WCIT, WTPF, IEG, Council, Pleniplotentiary, etc.  UNCTAD : CSTD  Other fora: IGF, ECOSOC 32
  28. 28.  Tidak banyak yang menyadari, bahwa mayoritas kegiatan online berdimensi hukum.  Kegiatan berdimensi hukum berarti memiliki kualifikasi sebagai perbuatan hukum.  Perbuatan hukum online menghadapi berbagai problematika yang menyangkut kepastian hukum mulai dari peraturan perundang-undangan formal dan material, prosedural, hingga ke pembuktian mengenai keabsahan tindakan serta pemenuhan persyaratan legalitasnya.
  29. 29. • MASTEL sebagai salah satu institusi pemangku kepentingan public di bidang Teknologi Komunikasi dan informatika di Indonesia berpendapat bahwa permasalahan OTT semestinya tidak hanya dipandang dari aspek kepentingan ekonomi dan Sosial saja, melainkan harus ditempatkan pada konteks kepentingan nasional sebagai negara yang berdaulat menyangkut bidang-bidang IPOLEKSUSBUDHANKAM. • Kedaulatan negara tidak hanya kedaulatan negara secara fisik dan geografis, tetapi juga mencakup kedaulatan di Wilayah Cyber. • Jika kedaulatan Cyber tidak dapat dijaga dan dikembangkan dengan baik, maka cepat atau lambat kedaulatan negara secara fisik akan tergerogoti. • Keterlanjuran lengah terhadap pentingnya kedaulatan Cyber Indonesia harus segera diluruskan.
  30. 30. Upaya-upaya interim yang perlu segera dilakukan dan diwujudkan dalam waktu dekat adalah:  Menerbitkan peraturan Menteri Komunikasi dan Informatika yang mengatur OTT;  Menata gerbang internet (internet gatways) dan menetapkan sejumlah kecil gerbang internet (internet gateways) eksisting untuk difungsikan sebagai gerbang internet nasional (national internet gateways)  Mendirikan gerbang pembayaran nasional (national payment gateway) atau menata gerbang pembayaran online (payment gateway) eksisting untuk dipilih menjadi gerbang pembayaran nasional (national payment gateway)  Tetap mempertahankan ketentuan mengenai kewajiban menempatkan Data Centre di wilayah geografis Indonesia
  31. 31.  Dalam konteks makro, kehidupan online di Indonesia harus mendukung perwujudan kedaulatan NKRI di wilayah Cyber Indonesia.  Dalam konteks hukum, satu prinsip yang harus dipegang erat adalah bahwa teknologi adalah alat untuk melakukan perbuatan hukum. Bisa jadi perbuatan hukum itu adalah perbuatan yang belum pernah ada sebelumnya yang memerlukan penegasan atas status hukumnya.  Perubahan teknologi berpadunya telekomunikasi dan internet ini telah mengubah subyek hukum utama; yang dulunya adalah penyelenggara jaringan, saat ini berpindah ke para penyedia aplikasi, karena penyedia aplikasilah yang bertransaksi langsung dengan masyarakat.
  32. 32. Buku Bunga Rampai MASTEL