What do you think?
• Your response becomes
your thesis and includes
– Stance / Opinion
Until we really understand
climate and how it works
in relation to the
Earth, we can not accept
global warming as truth.
Qualifications for Claim
Until we really understand
climate and how it works in
relation to the Earth, we can
not accept global warming as
• Is this claim contestable?
• Does this claim declare
• Is this claim supportable with
• Does it pass the reversible
• Is the claim laid out well?
Why do you think that?
1. There are numerous examples of both
cooler and warmer areas on Earth.
2. There are a number of natural
phenomenon that happen regularly that
can cause cooling (El Nino, volcanic
3. There are effects beyond our own
atmosphere that control climate (solar
4. There are natural cooling and warming
periods on Earth – both mini and long
5. We do not have enough detailed data
on climate history to say how much
effect our activity has on our climate.
Qualifications for Reasons
• Do your reasons explain
why you think the
audience should accept
• Do they represent
judgments not shared
by your audience?
• Do your reasons rest on
How do you know that’s true?
• There is that show mini
warming and cooling trends
lasting years – recent and
last two centuries.
• The Little Ice Age
• Medieval Warm Period.
• Solar flares and weather
• Mount Pinatubo and other
Qualifications for Evidence
• Could it be looked up?
• Is the evidence not contestable (at least for
the time being)?
• Is it comprised of representations of states of
affairs that are treated as facts?
• How closely do you need to match your
• How strongly will your readers resist your
claim –will your evidence need to be
stronger if they will be more resistant? Along
with that, how fully do you expect your
readers to accept your claim?
• The four maxims of quality evidence
1. Is it accurate?
2. Is your reporting of evidence accurate
3. Is your evidence representative?
4. Are you using reliable sources?
Why do the reasons and evidence
support the claims?
• My evidence shows that there
are changes in the patterns
throughout recorded history
that we have thoroughly
• This information shows there
is a lot we do not know about
• Until we understand it
better, we can’t know exactly
how much impact human
activity has on climate change.
Qualifications for Warrants
• Does is assert a logical connection
between your reason/evidence and
• Does the warrant include both your
reason and your evidence?
• Can it be assumed, or does it need
1. What is your warrant?
2. Is it true?
3. Are your specific reasons/claims
legit examples of your warrant?
i.e. does your reason match your
warrant, and does your claim
match your warrant
Acknowledgements / Responses
What about alternative views or contrary
• There are recording setting high
temperatures in many places
• WE have had higher temperature
trends in recent years in many places
• There are some extreme weather
patterns that include melting of ice
caps and droughts in unusual places.
• There is increased human activity
where we know pollution is being put
out at increasing amounts. It must
have a negative impact.
Qualifications for Acknowledgements
– Raise alternative
views, reasons, claims, warra
– Show how an argument can
be located amongst a field of
– Give a nod to possible
concerns you think your
audience may have with the
– Accept or reject an
acknowledged alternative or
explain problems within your
Avoid the Weak
Remember: A flag that your
paper is weak are the
• This a controversial topic.
• This is a topic that everyone
• This is a very serious topic.
Are you saying any of these
Then revisit your topic and