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Raymond Ppt


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Raymond Ppt

  1. 1. Raymond Cattell Factor Analytic Trait Theory
  2. 2. Biography <ul><li>Cattell was born in England in 1905 to a family of engineers. </li></ul><ul><li>Cattell was a bright student, graduating with his doctorate in psychology in 1929 from the University of London at 23. </li></ul><ul><li>  A bleak job market forced Cattell to take a clinical position doing school psychology for 5 years. </li></ul><ul><li>This helped him with his future career in personality research. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Biography contd. <ul><li>In 1937, Cattell was invited to the states by E.L. Thorndike in New York. </li></ul><ul><li>Cattell stayed in the US after this, taking positions at Clark University, Harvard University, and the University of Illinois. </li></ul><ul><li>It was in Illinois, that he spent his most productive years developing personality tests.   </li></ul><ul><li>In 1997, he was awarded a lifetime achievement award from the American Psychological Foundation. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Factor Analytic Theories <ul><li>Factor analytic theories strive to summarize the relationships among a large number of variables into fewer, more general patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>This is done to describe the fundamental dimensions of individual differences. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Personality—Cattell’s time-line <ul><li>Cattell argued--personality went through 3 phases. </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 1: Occurred from ancient times till the 1900s century, when scholars wrote about their intuitive insights into personality. </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 2: In the early 1900s, clinically oriented theorists proposed their views of personality (Freud, Adler, Jung) with some experimental work. </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 3: Following WWI, theorists employed more experimental & quantitative methods to assess personality. </li></ul>
  6. 6. What did Cattell believe was his place in personality field? <ul><li>Cattell observed the important insights of earlier theorists & used modern methods & technology (computers) to assess the importance of these insights in determining personality. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Factor Analysis <ul><li>A statistical produce based on correlation, that is used to examine factor analytic theories. </li></ul><ul><li>A correlation coefficient provides an index of the relationship between two or more variables. </li></ul><ul><li>It may range from –1.00 to +1.00, where the sign indicates the direction & the # indicates the magnitude of the relationship. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Factor Analysis contd. <ul><li>Many correlation coefficients are computed during the course of a factor analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>The correlations among all pairs of variables are computed to form a correlation matrix. </li></ul><ul><li>Patterns of correlations often disclose redundant information , which may be systematically described. </li></ul><ul><li>Factor analysis allows the personality researcher to identify a smaller number of dimensions (factors) that the variables fit into. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Example: <ul><li>Imagine we administer intelligence tests. </li></ul><ul><li>We would find that: </li></ul><ul><li>Tests of verbal ability would be positively correlated (vocabulary, grammar, & spelling), but have lower correlations with tests of mathematical abilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Tests of math ability would be positively correlated (geometry, algebra, calculus), but have lower correlations with tests of verbal ability. </li></ul><ul><li>Factor analysis of these variables would reveals two factors: mathematical ability a& verbal ability. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Cattell’s view of traits <ul><li>Cattell saw traits as important units of personality that have predictive value. </li></ul><ul><li>In contrast to Allport, who felt traits were part of our biology, Cattell thought of traits as abstract concepts. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Measurement <ul><li>Cattell sought to systematically & methodically describe personality. </li></ul><ul><li>He believed that it was imperative to have a method for obtaining reliable & valid measure of personality factors. </li></ul><ul><li>His best known personality test is the 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (16PF) that can be used with normal Ss & with clinical populations. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Types of data <ul><li>1. Q-data ( questionnaire data) –is obtained by asking people to describe themselves in response to a set of standard questions (Multiple choice, true/false). </li></ul><ul><li>Pros —easy to administer & quick access to information. </li></ul><ul><li>Con – people may impression manage (e.g., lie to make themselves look good). </li></ul>
  13. 13. Types of data <ul><li>2. T-data (objective test data) –is obtained by asking people to take various tests (projective, physical, reaction times) in which the purpose of the test isn’t obvious. </li></ul><ul><li>Pros- this should reduce impression managing; provides objective data. </li></ul><ul><li>Cons -objective tests may be of limited use. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Types of data <ul><li>3. L-data (life record data) – is obtained by gathering life history of person (personal records), such as grade point average, driving history, letters of recommendation, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Pros —information can be obtained with requiring Ss to fill out questionnaires. </li></ul><ul><li>Cons – provides limited information about the individual. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Surface traits <ul><li>Refers to those traits that seem readily apparent. </li></ul><ul><li>E.g., you encounter a friendly, gregarious librarian who is very helpful & you infer she possesses the trait of sociability. </li></ul><ul><li>However, surface traits are based on people’s perceptions of personality; they don’t necessarily provide the best description of underlying personality dimensions. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Source traits <ul><li>Refers to the deeper patterns underlying personality. </li></ul><ul><li>These source traits emerge despite differences in testing situations, questionnaire methods, & so forth. </li></ul><ul><li>Cattell used factor analysis to identify 16 source traits. Using these 16 source traits he developed the 16PF. </li></ul><ul><li>The set of scores on all factors is the profile of the individual. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Second-Order Factors <ul><li>There may be correlations among the 16 factors. That is, there is some redundancy in the 16 source traits Cattell identified. </li></ul><ul><li>We can reduce this number down, by doing another factor analysis on the 16 personality factors. </li></ul><ul><li>This second-order analysis, often yields 5 second-order factors. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Three types of traits <ul><li>1 . Ability traits- define intelligence. </li></ul><ul><li>Cattell argued that we have 2 types of intelligence: Fluid & crystallized. </li></ul><ul><li>Fluid intelligence -the innate ability to learn </li></ul><ul><li>Crystallized intelligence -what has been learned from education. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Intelligence <ul><li>Cattell believed that 80% of the variance in intelligence was the result of heredity; the remaining 20% due to experience. </li></ul><ul><li>This position supported both the Eugenics movement & the Nazis. </li></ul>
  20. 20. 2. Temperament traits <ul><li>These traits determine the general way a person behaviors. (high-strungness, speed, energy, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>****Thought to be largely inherited. ** </li></ul><ul><li>  Dynamic traits— are motivational. These guide us in our behaviors & interactions with others. </li></ul><ul><li>Cattell felt some of these are inherited, others learned. </li></ul>
  21. 21. The Big Five <ul><li>Based on Cattell’s model of factor analysis, five factors have been identified that may describe the full spectrum of personality. </li></ul><ul><li>The proponents of the Big Five are Paul Costa Jr. & Robert McCrae, who are interested in describing personality. </li></ul>
  22. 22. The Big Five <ul><li>Five broad factors have been identified to describe personality. They are: </li></ul><ul><li>Extraversion </li></ul><ul><li>Agreeableness </li></ul><ul><li>Neuroticism </li></ul><ul><li>Conscientiousness </li></ul><ul><li>Openness </li></ul><ul><li>(They spell “OCEAN”) </li></ul>
  23. 23. 1. Extraversion <ul><li>People high in extraversion are often talkative, passionate, active, dominant, & sociable. </li></ul><ul><li>Those scoring high have more interactions with others than those scoring low. </li></ul><ul><li>Extraverts tend to develop more social relationships during college, are more likely to fall in love, & are more responsive to pleasure. </li></ul>
  24. 24. 2. Agreeableness <ul><li>Agreeableness refers to how “likable” we are. </li></ul><ul><li>People scoring high on agreeableness tend to be good-natured, soft-hearted, and trusting. Those low on the factor are irritable, ruthless, and suspicious. </li></ul><ul><li>People who score high on this factor report little conflict in their relationships. They are less likely to assert power when they do experience conflict as well. </li></ul>
  25. 25. 3 . Neuroticism <ul><li>Describes people who frequently are troubled by negative emotions such as worry & insecurity. </li></ul><ul><li>People high on neuroticism can be described as those who worry, those who emotionally unstable, they are often anxious, & have low self-esteem. </li></ul><ul><li>People who score low on this factor report being much happier than people scoring higher on this dimension. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Conscientiousness <ul><li>Describes someone who is hardworking, dependable, ambitious, responsible, & is tenacious. </li></ul><ul><li>People scoring high on this dimension value cleanliness, & ambitiousness. </li></ul><ul><li>They tend to be organized, punctual, do well academically, are well liked by their superiors, & dedicated to their significant others. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Openness <ul><li>Refers to how cultured, intelligent, & receptive a person is to new ideas, places, & interests. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who score high in openness are more likely to be artistic, curious, imaginative, insightful, and intuitive. </li></ul>