P A5


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P A5

  1. 1. Logistics Io and Popular press due NEXT WEEK Part I: Training Quiz NEXT WEEK UPDATE emergency contact info: – “All Registration/Add/Drop activity will be restricted by a Service Indicator (Hold) applied to their account. The Service Indicator will be "self released" by students through ISIS when they verify their Part II: Performance Emergency Contact Information or choose not to provide the information by verifying the blank page. Guerilla Girls: Feminists are Funny: This Appraisal Thurs, 7:30, Comley Lane Theater (Mahoney) Training Training Definition: The systematic acquisition of skills, rules concepts, or attitudes that result in improved performance – Change in behavior Hamburger university Why Training? Learning Objectives Deal with Change At the conclusion of this module, you Deal with New tech should: – Be able to 100% accurately describe the basic Enhance management strategy and timeline of a training program effectiveness – Be able to distinguish between on-site and off site Makes sure employees have required training methods and their advantages and disadvantages KSAs – Be able to critically evaluate and accurately list at Deal with Diversity sensitivity least three ways to know if a training program was successful 1
  2. 2. A Chronological Approach Pretraining Environment Pretraining environment Individual Differences Needs assessment – What do learners bring to the training environment? Training Design Environmental Support Training Implementation – Is training valued? Training Transfer and Outcomes Framing of the Training Training Evaluation – Is it basic or advanced? Needs Assessment Training Design Key Question: What does the training On-site Off-site need to accomplish... – On-the-job – Lectures – ...in terms of the organization’s goals? training – Audio-visual – ...in terms of specific tasks? – Job rotation – Conferences – …in terms of the people involved? – Apprenticeship – Computer-assisted Should result in learning objectives – instruction like the ones for this lesson! – Simulation/role- playing Training Transfer Training Evaluation Does material from training actually get Kirkpatrick’s standards for success USED? – Reactions – Initiation – Learning – Maintenance – Behavior – Generalization – Results Outcomes… – Knowledge, skills, attitudes, etc. 2
  3. 3. Future Directions Performance Appraisal Increased automation Diversity of the workforce Continuous learning Adaptation and flexibility Training as a market all its own Roadmap Performance Appraisal Performance = behaviors Definition – Observable Uses of Performance Appraisal Effectiveness = the evaluation of the Process results of performance – Beyond the control of the employee Sources of Appraisal Info – Contaminated by other factors Rater issues Obvious relationship between Other P.A. issues Performance & Effectiveness Try to appraise employees on behaviors Basic Performance Appraisal Process Use of Performance Appraisals Conduct a Job Analysis (e.g., specify tasks and KSAs) Feedback Personnel Training Wage/Salary Allocation (Compensation) Develop Performance Standards Placement (e.g., define what is superior, Promotions acceptable, and poor job performance) Discharge/Termination Personnel Research Legal Defense Develop or Choose a Performance Appraisal System 3
  4. 4. Sources of Appraisal Info Sources of Appraisal Info (2) Objective Production Data Judgmental Data – Objective number of behaviors or output – Graphic Rating Scales Personnel Data • Halo Errors – general feeling towards the target – Absenteeism – Turnover – Accidents Halo Error Sources of Appraisal Info (2) Responsibility Commitment Judgmental Data Initiative – Graphic Rating Scales Sensitivity • Halo Errors – general feeling towards the target • Leniency Errors – hard vs soft “grader” Judgment • Central Tendency Errors – avoid extremes Communication – Employee Comparison • Rank-Order Method • Paired Comparison High ratings on other Observation of specific performance behavior (s) (e.g., dimensions volunteers to work overtime) Subjective Appraisal Methods (can be used with any type of job) Sources of Appraisal Info (2) Relative Methods 1) Ranking Judgmental Data 1st _____ – Graphic Rating Scales • Halo Errors – general feeling towards the target 2nd_____ • Leniency Errors – hard vs soft “grader” 3rd _____ • Central Tendency Errors – avoid extremes – Employee Comparison 2) Pair Comparison • Rank-Order Method Employee-1 _____ versus Employee-2 _____ • Paired Comparison • Forced Distribution Employee-1 _____ versus Employee-3 _____ etc. – Behavioral Checklists • Both are difficult to use with a large number of subordinates • Critical Incidents, BARS, & BOS 4
  5. 5. Subjective Appraisal Methods Behavioral Methods (use of critical incidents; examples Rater Issues of good and poor job behavior collected by job experts over time) Rater Training Behavior Observation Scales (BOS) – Give reference points • Rate the frequency in which critical incidents are performed by employees Rater Motivation – Bias in supervisory ratings • Sum the ratings for a total “performance” score – Try to motivate accuracy 1) Assists others in job duties. _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ Never Usually Always 2) Cleans equipment after each use. _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ Never Usually Always Other Performance Issues… Other Performance Issues… Extra-Role Behaviors (Contextual Perf) Self-Appraisals – Organizational Citizenship Behaviors Peer Assessment (OCB) 360-degree feedback Performance Appraisal in Teams Stereotypes & Bias in Performance Appraisal – Descriptive Stereotypes – Prescriptive Stereotypes Factors Affecting Employees Acceptance of Performance Evaluations • Asking for (and using) performance information/input from employees importance of using employee • Ensure a 2-way interaction during the performance appraisal meeting self- evaluations • Provide a way for employees to counter or challenge the appraisal • Sufficient detail and knowledge of employee performance by supervisors • Consistent use of performance standards across employees importance of rater training • Basing performance evaluation on actual job behaviors • Using performance ratings for personnel decisions (e.g., pay, promotion) 5