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Benefits of Programmable Topological
Routing Policies in RINA-enabled
Large-scale Datacenters
Sergio Leon(1), Jordi Perelló(1), Davide Careglio(1), Eduard Grasa(2),
Diego R. López(3) and Pedro A. Aranda (3)
(1) Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC)
(2) Fundació Privada i2CAT (i2CAT)
(3) Telefónica I+D
* This research has been funded by the European Project FP7 PRISTINE, as well as the
Spanish National project SUNSET. 1
UPC
NGN.9 - Sergio Leon, Jordi Perelló, Davide Careglio, Eduard Grasa, Diego R. López and Pedro A. Aranda,
“Benefits of Programmable Topological Routing Policies in RINA-enabled Large-scale Datacenters”
Summary
 Datacenter networks overview
 A quick look into RINA
 RINA-enabled datacenter scenario
 Topological forwarding
 Rules
 Exceptions
 Failure centered routing
 Numerical results
 Conclusions
2
UPC
NGN.9 - Sergio Leon, Jordi Perelló, Davide Careglio, Eduard Grasa, Diego R. López and Pedro A. Aranda,
“Benefits of Programmable Topological Routing Policies in RINA-enabled Large-scale Datacenters”
Datacenter networks overview
 Large number of nodes, but well distributed
 Large routing and forwarding tables:
 TCP/IP routing solutions does not take profit from the topology
 IP does not differentiate well between forwarding domains
3
UPC
NGN.9 - Sergio Leon, Jordi Perelló, Davide Careglio, Eduard Grasa, Diego R. López and Pedro A. Aranda,
“Benefits of Programmable Topological Routing Policies in RINA-enabled Large-scale Datacenters”
A quick look into RINA(1/2)
 RINA : Recursive InterNetworking Architecture
 Key idea:
“Networking is Inter Process
Communication (IPC) and only IPC”
 What it really is:
 Clean-slate recursive Internet model
 Same type of layer, Distributed IPC Facility (DIF), at each level
 All DIFs share the same functionality
 Even so, each DIF can be fully configured via any policy
(addressing and routing included)
 Each DIF may provide full support for a wide range of QoS
4
UPC
NGN.9 - Sergio Leon, Jordi Perelló, Davide Careglio, Eduard Grasa, Diego R. López and Pedro A. Aranda,
“Benefits of Programmable Topological Routing Policies in RINA-enabled Large-scale Datacenters”
A quick look into RINA(2/2)
 Each IPC Process (IPCP) shares the same API
 Upper IPCPs and applications use it to request flows with
specific QoS requirements
5
UPC
NGN.9 - Sergio Leon, Jordi Perelló, Davide Careglio, Eduard Grasa, Diego R. López and Pedro A. Aranda,
“Benefits of Programmable Topological Routing Policies in RINA-enabled Large-scale Datacenters”
RINA-enabled datacenter scenario(1/3)
 RINA-enabled Datacenter networks with multiple layers:
 DC-Fabric DIF:: ToR-2-ToR and ToR-2-Edge communication
 DC DIF:: Server-2-Server and Server-2-Gateway communication
 Tenant DIFs – Application-2-Application communication
6
UPC
NGN.9 - Sergio Leon, Jordi Perelló, Davide Careglio, Eduard Grasa, Diego R. López and Pedro A. Aranda,
“Benefits of Programmable Topological Routing Policies in RINA-enabled Large-scale Datacenters”
RINA-enabled datacenter scenario(2/3)
 Leaf-spine DCN (e.g., Google)
 Proposed addressing scheme:
 ToR switch <Pod_id . (ToR_id + #Fabrics)>
 Fabric switch <Pod_id . Fabric_id>
 Spine switch <0 . Spine_id>
7
UPC
NGN.9 - Sergio Leon, Jordi Perelló, Davide Careglio, Eduard Grasa, Diego R. López and Pedro A. Aranda,
“Benefits of Programmable Topological Routing Policies in RINA-enabled Large-scale Datacenters”
RINA-enabled datacenter scenario(3/3)
 Clos DCN (e.g., Facebook)
 Proposed addressing scheme:
 ToR switch <(Pod_id + #SpineSets) . (ToR_id + #Fabrics)>
 Fabric switch <(Pod_id + #SpineSets) . Fabric_id>
 Spine switch <Spine_set . Spine_id>
8
UPC
NGN.9 - Sergio Leon, Jordi Perelló, Davide Careglio, Eduard Grasa, Diego R. López and Pedro A. Aranda,
“Benefits of Programmable Topological Routing Policies in RINA-enabled Large-scale Datacenters”
Topological forwarding - Rules
 Non-failure scenario
 Forwarding decisions are simple
e.g., to reach a ToR switch:
 At a ToR switch, go to any neighbor
 At a fabric switch, either destination is a neighbor or use any
spine switch neighbor
 At spine switch, go to any fabric switch in the destination pod
 Simple rules can be executed quickly
 Groups of neighbors can be used to simplify rules
9
UPC
NGN.9 - Sergio Leon, Jordi Perelló, Davide Careglio, Eduard Grasa, Diego R. López and Pedro A. Aranda,
“Benefits of Programmable Topological Routing Policies in RINA-enabled Large-scale Datacenters”
Topological forwarding - Exceptions
 Failures in the network → Few rules may fail
 Exceptions to overwrite non-valid rules
 Similar to traditional forwarding entries
 But support different encodings (e.g., use any neighbor but X)
 Common failures may require 1 or no exception
 Hardware with support for rules and exceptions can
replace traditional forwarding tables
10
UPC
NGN.9 - Sergio Leon, Jordi Perelló, Davide Careglio, Eduard Grasa, Diego R. López and Pedro A. Aranda,
“Benefits of Programmable Topological Routing Policies in RINA-enabled Large-scale Datacenters”
Failure centered routing
 Expected network graph known at “0-cost”
 Only failures and recovery need to be shared
 Exception computation directed near failures
 Routing can be distributed
 e.g., link-state-based policies for failure propagation
 Or Centralized
 e.g., take profit from existing servers to compute exceptions
and populate forwarding policies
11
UPC
NGN.9 - Sergio Leon, Jordi Perelló, Davide Careglio, Eduard Grasa, Diego R. López and Pedro A. Aranda,
“Benefits of Programmable Topological Routing Policies in RINA-enabled Large-scale Datacenters”
Numerical results(1/2)
 Non-failure scenario
 Number of entries
required for forwarding
minimized to almost
the number of
neighbors
 Size of entries also
greatly reduced
12
UPC
NGN.9 - Sergio Leon, Jordi Perelló, Davide Careglio, Eduard Grasa, Diego R. López and Pedro A. Aranda,
“Benefits of Programmable Topological Routing Policies in RINA-enabled Large-scale Datacenters”
Numerical results(2/2)
 Amount of entries
remains almost
constant with failures
in the network
 As the datacenter
size grows, the
number of entries
remains quite steady
13
UPC
NGN.9 - Sergio Leon, Jordi Perelló, Davide Careglio, Eduard Grasa, Diego R. López and Pedro A. Aranda,
“Benefits of Programmable Topological Routing Policies in RINA-enabled Large-scale Datacenters”
Conclusions
 IP-based datacenters have multiple scalability
limitations
 RINA-based datacenters already avoid the sharing of
unnecessary addresses between forwarding domains
 And the use of policies tailored to the network
 Our policies minimize the required forwarding
knowledge to only that of connected neighbor nodes
 Additionally, failure based routing reduces both cost of
sharing and computing new network states
14
Thanks. Questions?
The authors of this work would like to thank all members
of the PRISTINE Project consortium for the valuable
discussions and inputs
15

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Benefits of programmable topological routing policies in RINA-enabled large scale DCs

  • 1. Benefits of Programmable Topological Routing Policies in RINA-enabled Large-scale Datacenters Sergio Leon(1), Jordi Perelló(1), Davide Careglio(1), Eduard Grasa(2), Diego R. López(3) and Pedro A. Aranda (3) (1) Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC) (2) Fundació Privada i2CAT (i2CAT) (3) Telefónica I+D * This research has been funded by the European Project FP7 PRISTINE, as well as the Spanish National project SUNSET. 1
  • 2. UPC NGN.9 - Sergio Leon, Jordi Perelló, Davide Careglio, Eduard Grasa, Diego R. López and Pedro A. Aranda, “Benefits of Programmable Topological Routing Policies in RINA-enabled Large-scale Datacenters” Summary  Datacenter networks overview  A quick look into RINA  RINA-enabled datacenter scenario  Topological forwarding  Rules  Exceptions  Failure centered routing  Numerical results  Conclusions 2
  • 3. UPC NGN.9 - Sergio Leon, Jordi Perelló, Davide Careglio, Eduard Grasa, Diego R. López and Pedro A. Aranda, “Benefits of Programmable Topological Routing Policies in RINA-enabled Large-scale Datacenters” Datacenter networks overview  Large number of nodes, but well distributed  Large routing and forwarding tables:  TCP/IP routing solutions does not take profit from the topology  IP does not differentiate well between forwarding domains 3
  • 4. UPC NGN.9 - Sergio Leon, Jordi Perelló, Davide Careglio, Eduard Grasa, Diego R. López and Pedro A. Aranda, “Benefits of Programmable Topological Routing Policies in RINA-enabled Large-scale Datacenters” A quick look into RINA(1/2)  RINA : Recursive InterNetworking Architecture  Key idea: “Networking is Inter Process Communication (IPC) and only IPC”  What it really is:  Clean-slate recursive Internet model  Same type of layer, Distributed IPC Facility (DIF), at each level  All DIFs share the same functionality  Even so, each DIF can be fully configured via any policy (addressing and routing included)  Each DIF may provide full support for a wide range of QoS 4
  • 5. UPC NGN.9 - Sergio Leon, Jordi Perelló, Davide Careglio, Eduard Grasa, Diego R. López and Pedro A. Aranda, “Benefits of Programmable Topological Routing Policies in RINA-enabled Large-scale Datacenters” A quick look into RINA(2/2)  Each IPC Process (IPCP) shares the same API  Upper IPCPs and applications use it to request flows with specific QoS requirements 5
  • 6. UPC NGN.9 - Sergio Leon, Jordi Perelló, Davide Careglio, Eduard Grasa, Diego R. López and Pedro A. Aranda, “Benefits of Programmable Topological Routing Policies in RINA-enabled Large-scale Datacenters” RINA-enabled datacenter scenario(1/3)  RINA-enabled Datacenter networks with multiple layers:  DC-Fabric DIF:: ToR-2-ToR and ToR-2-Edge communication  DC DIF:: Server-2-Server and Server-2-Gateway communication  Tenant DIFs – Application-2-Application communication 6
  • 7. UPC NGN.9 - Sergio Leon, Jordi Perelló, Davide Careglio, Eduard Grasa, Diego R. López and Pedro A. Aranda, “Benefits of Programmable Topological Routing Policies in RINA-enabled Large-scale Datacenters” RINA-enabled datacenter scenario(2/3)  Leaf-spine DCN (e.g., Google)  Proposed addressing scheme:  ToR switch <Pod_id . (ToR_id + #Fabrics)>  Fabric switch <Pod_id . Fabric_id>  Spine switch <0 . Spine_id> 7
  • 8. UPC NGN.9 - Sergio Leon, Jordi Perelló, Davide Careglio, Eduard Grasa, Diego R. López and Pedro A. Aranda, “Benefits of Programmable Topological Routing Policies in RINA-enabled Large-scale Datacenters” RINA-enabled datacenter scenario(3/3)  Clos DCN (e.g., Facebook)  Proposed addressing scheme:  ToR switch <(Pod_id + #SpineSets) . (ToR_id + #Fabrics)>  Fabric switch <(Pod_id + #SpineSets) . Fabric_id>  Spine switch <Spine_set . Spine_id> 8
  • 9. UPC NGN.9 - Sergio Leon, Jordi Perelló, Davide Careglio, Eduard Grasa, Diego R. López and Pedro A. Aranda, “Benefits of Programmable Topological Routing Policies in RINA-enabled Large-scale Datacenters” Topological forwarding - Rules  Non-failure scenario  Forwarding decisions are simple e.g., to reach a ToR switch:  At a ToR switch, go to any neighbor  At a fabric switch, either destination is a neighbor or use any spine switch neighbor  At spine switch, go to any fabric switch in the destination pod  Simple rules can be executed quickly  Groups of neighbors can be used to simplify rules 9
  • 10. UPC NGN.9 - Sergio Leon, Jordi Perelló, Davide Careglio, Eduard Grasa, Diego R. López and Pedro A. Aranda, “Benefits of Programmable Topological Routing Policies in RINA-enabled Large-scale Datacenters” Topological forwarding - Exceptions  Failures in the network → Few rules may fail  Exceptions to overwrite non-valid rules  Similar to traditional forwarding entries  But support different encodings (e.g., use any neighbor but X)  Common failures may require 1 or no exception  Hardware with support for rules and exceptions can replace traditional forwarding tables 10
  • 11. UPC NGN.9 - Sergio Leon, Jordi Perelló, Davide Careglio, Eduard Grasa, Diego R. López and Pedro A. Aranda, “Benefits of Programmable Topological Routing Policies in RINA-enabled Large-scale Datacenters” Failure centered routing  Expected network graph known at “0-cost”  Only failures and recovery need to be shared  Exception computation directed near failures  Routing can be distributed  e.g., link-state-based policies for failure propagation  Or Centralized  e.g., take profit from existing servers to compute exceptions and populate forwarding policies 11
  • 12. UPC NGN.9 - Sergio Leon, Jordi Perelló, Davide Careglio, Eduard Grasa, Diego R. López and Pedro A. Aranda, “Benefits of Programmable Topological Routing Policies in RINA-enabled Large-scale Datacenters” Numerical results(1/2)  Non-failure scenario  Number of entries required for forwarding minimized to almost the number of neighbors  Size of entries also greatly reduced 12
  • 13. UPC NGN.9 - Sergio Leon, Jordi Perelló, Davide Careglio, Eduard Grasa, Diego R. López and Pedro A. Aranda, “Benefits of Programmable Topological Routing Policies in RINA-enabled Large-scale Datacenters” Numerical results(2/2)  Amount of entries remains almost constant with failures in the network  As the datacenter size grows, the number of entries remains quite steady 13
  • 14. UPC NGN.9 - Sergio Leon, Jordi Perelló, Davide Careglio, Eduard Grasa, Diego R. López and Pedro A. Aranda, “Benefits of Programmable Topological Routing Policies in RINA-enabled Large-scale Datacenters” Conclusions  IP-based datacenters have multiple scalability limitations  RINA-based datacenters already avoid the sharing of unnecessary addresses between forwarding domains  And the use of policies tailored to the network  Our policies minimize the required forwarding knowledge to only that of connected neighbor nodes  Additionally, failure based routing reduces both cost of sharing and computing new network states 14
  • 15. Thanks. Questions? The authors of this work would like to thank all members of the PRISTINE Project consortium for the valuable discussions and inputs 15