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White paper achieving the most economically advantageous applications solution every time


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This is a White Paper that I produced in 2010 on the subject of how organizations have the potential to always achieve the most economically advantageous application solution for their business by insourcing IT thanks to the evolution of near-real-time applications authoring.

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White paper achieving the most economically advantageous applications solution every time

  2. 2. WHITE PAPER | Achieving the Most Economically Advantageous Apps Every Time 2
  3. 3. WHITE PAPER | Achieving the Most Economically Advantageous Apps Every TimeContentsA New Economic Imperative .....................................................................5The Bottom Line .............................................................................................6New Routes to Applications Sourcing ...................................................7The Downside of Current Sourcing Approaches ................................8Situational Applications Insourcing ..................................................... 10Known Roadblocks..................................................................................... 11Technology to Empower Process Improvement ............................. 14Evidence of Results .................................................................................... 16Qualifying the ROI ...................................................................................... 18Contact information .................................................................................. 19 3
  4. 4. WHITE PAPER | Achieving the Most Economically Advantageous Apps Every TimeHow do organizations achieve IT procurement savings anddrive through more process efficiency savings by deliveringbetter information systems in challenging times?This document describes current business software sourcingoptions and exposes their sub-optimal performance andthen describes an alternative approach to meeting themajority of demands for business software applications atthe lowest and most economically advantageous cost. 4
  5. 5. WHITE PAPER | Achieving the Most Economically Advantageous Apps Every TimeA New Economic ImperativeFor decades, well established large organizations with robustbusiness models have enjoyed budgets of relative plenty. But theeconomic meltdown of 2009 has led to a new economic reality.The role of IT in organizations has not changed fundamentally – even in arecession organizations need information systems to fuel processimprovements, creative innovation, growth and front-line customerservices – but what has changed fundamentally is the size of budgets,and probably forever. The world of corporate IT facing a permanentchange in its funding.To achieve significant cost reductions whilst avoiding direct impact onfront-line services and growth, organizations must re-visit how theyoperate IT and procure services. In this new paradigm, no longer aretoday’s norms of IT procurement affordable or sustainable.While norms of procurement behaviour change over time, in this neweconomic climate, business decision makers are under pressure to injectinnovation into procurement approaches and to take marginally morerisk where the promise of step-change rewards exists.Nowhere is the potential for rewards greater or more achievable than inthe supply of business software applications; souring innovation ininformation systems to improve the efficiency of processes and injectnew ways of engaging with customers and finding new markets. 5
  6. 6. WHITE PAPER | Achieving the Most Economically Advantageous Apps Every TimeThe Bottom LineThe total cost of IT for organizations should not exceed 1% ofincome. For many organizations, a target outline cost for IT in theorder of 0.5% is achievable.Sophisticated organizations that have already thoughtfully engineeredthe IT function like easyjet are today achieving IT operating costs below1% of total revenues. This compares to the majority of organizationswhose IT costs can range from 1.5% to 6% of income. easyJet is profitingfrom moving to cloud computing and adopting Software as a Servicesolutions for utility applications like email, calendaring and officesoftware.Yet, even more can be achieved through more radical approaches to ITprocurement without significantly increasing risk.And for organizations that face more extreme changes to complianceand market conditions, more can be done to deliver adaptive, better-fitIT to proportionately more IT users.The potential of IT to create competitive advantage, boost customerservice performance and streamline business processes to createoperational excellence has taken a knock over the last two decades – butthe potential still exists for IT to do just that.Isn’t it time that your technology made a difference to competitiveadvantage? 6
  7. 7. WHITE PAPER | Achieving the Most Economically Advantageous Apps Every TimeNew Routes to Applications SourcingWhen software applications are demanded, the cogs of sourcinga solution start turning. The consideration given to sourcingoptions is often limited by ‘norms of understanding’ and ‘normsof behaviour’ that are no longer valid.Instead of considering ‘How can we exploit or enrich our existingtechnologies, or deliver this software application ourselves’, thoughtsquickly move to options of procuring a ready-made application solution,outsourcing a custom development or fully outsourcing processes.Ready-built software applicationsThe procurement of ready-built software applications that boilerplatespecific business disciplines, processes or technology components (suchas geo-spatial mapping, knowledge management, business processworkflow, mobile etc.) is seen to offer a lower risk procurement strategythan the alternative of development.Software as a ServiceThis is the procurement of software delivered as a service via the Web.The argument for ‘SaaS’ software solutions is that organizations don’tneed to buy or maintain software in order to use it; neither do they needto pay for or support the hosting environment. SaaS also means thatorganizations can turn off systems at any time.Development outsourcingThis is the procurement of custom systems by paying a third party todevelop them. The argument for software development outsourcing isthat it offsets potential risk of project failure by placing IT applicationsdesign into the hands of professionals.Process outsourcingThis is the outsourcing of entire business processes to third parties.Process outsourcers will promote arguments of economies of scale,systems leadership and process expertise to prospective customers.Perhaps a more politically sensitive issue is the reality of offshoreoutsourcing where third party suppliers are able to manage processes forless primarily because of lower labour costs in countries overseas. IT isfrequently seen as a key component of the process outsourcing offer thatmeans purchasers no longer need to burden themselves with worryingabout which system to install and operate as the process outsourcer willprovision its own systems as part of the agreement.These procurement vehicles may be well understood, but they’re notthe ONLY options open to buyers. There are today moreeconomically advantageous options through insourcing that havefewer constraints on organizational agility and growth thanks torecent innovations in the science of computing. 7
  8. 8. WHITE PAPER | Achieving the Most Economically Advantageous Apps Every TimeThe Downside of Current Sourcing ApproachesWhilst these procurement approaches are understood to offerrobust and sometimes compelling commercial reasons for adoption,there are many good reasons why following this course isn’t the bestoption for software procurements. Here are a few reasons why not.Inflated procurement process costsIf a new procurement process is instigated for every new softwareapplication requirement, large or small, costs of procurement inevitablyspiral. This is the reality for many organizations that have lost all in-housecapability to author applications.Inflated buy pricesWhen organizations tender for ready-made systems, they run into theeconomic reality that every software company specializing in a particulargenre of software will expect to charge in the range of £24k to £60k fortheir system plus maintenance and upgrade fees in excess of 15% ofsoftware value. This is because the cost to suppliers of responding to aprocurement, providing customer support, paying salespeoplecommission, contributing to the running costs of the business etc.demand that a certain level of income per sale is achieved.Poor fit IT systemsWhen organizations buy off-the-shelf software they often find the ‘fit’ ofsystems is not ideal for their organizational size and software featuresneed to be customized at extra cost to suit their business needs.Rigid, inflexible IT systemsReady-made software applications include proprietary logic, technologycomponents (i.e. database, workflow, report tools etc.) and contractrestrictions that prohibit adaptation. Vendors are normally reluctant toallow their customers free access to their own data on their systemswithout purchasing proprietary report writers or data connector APIs.Creation of silosOutsourcing software development, MIS functions or complete processescreates cultural and operational silos as staff loyalties and values adapt totheir new employer. Purchases of shrink-wrapped software lead tounmanageable portfolios of IT components that all work differently,producing systems that don’t talk to one another.Growth in grey sourcingAs outsourcing contracts age, requests for change and adaptation thatare constrained by contractual arrangements, are frequently addressedby staff directly rather than being assigned to contractors. This creates a‘grey sourcing’ expense hidden within operating budgets. 8
  9. 9. WHITE PAPER | Achieving the Most Economically Advantageous Apps Every Time Spiralling software maintenance costsA summary of the Suppliers of software applications will charge for support. Typically theprocurement options: cost of maintenance contracts far exceeds their benefit but their provision is necessary if organizations wish to enjoy support.Ready-built software Inflated version upgrade costs  High procurement Organizations are frequently required to upgrade systems not because process costs they desperately need new features but because they want to avoid  Inflated buy prices operating outmoded systems that are no longer supported by  Too many supplier suppliers. relations  Over-size/poor fit Loss of contractual bargaining power software Organizations are sometimes held to ransom by IT suppliers because  Creation of data silos they’ve invested so much time and money into a particular third party  Increased integration IT system that the cost and risk of change is too great to contemplate. costs Creation of an ‘IT lottery’Software as a Service There can never enough shrink-wrapped solutions to meet every  Poor data unique need for IT. The nature of innovation and process management improvement is that there is always another process to serve as  Inability to organizations adapt and grow. The absence of sufficient budgets and customize/adapt suitable IT tools creates a lottery for fit-for-purpose systems betweenDevelopment outsourcing department managers.  Inflated buy prices Throwing baby out with the bath water  Slower delivery Organizations that have outsourced their development, IT function orProcess outsourcing processes often lose control over their ability to adapt as contracts  Cultural and and conflicts of interest inhibit an organizations ability to respond to operational silos industry and market changes.  Growth in grey Too many supplier relationships sourcing Some organizations have in excess of 50 software supplier(All) relationships owing to their strategy to procure ready-built software  Poor adaptability for each and every discipline or core business process. This leads to  Poor support for high maintenance ands upgrade costs and excessive supplier liaison innovation costs. Sub-optimal information systems A long tail of demand exists for software applications, unsupported due to a lack of resources and budgets. Senior officers, middle- managers and creatives charged with innovation in the organization - and whose roles demand that they use information in different ways to build insights, collaborate with communities, share ideas and evolve better strategies – find they lack the access to information and systems needed to discharge their roles. 9
  10. 10. WHITE PAPER | Achieving the Most Economically Advantageous Apps Every Time Situational Applications InsourcingSituational ApplicationsInsourcing SITUATIONAL APPLICATIONS are software applicationsBenefits: demanded by organizations to improve business processes in respond to new business situations. They represent the Project complexity and MAJORITY of emerging demands for software ‘systems’ risk is removed by creating applications beyond the core components of Financial and Enterprise during workshops and Resource Planning (ERP) systems. iteratively adapting applications to best fit Situational Applications Insourcing describes an insourcing the use case. approach for provisioning of new applications where the delivery No programming skills of applications is met by ‘super business analysts’ embedded into and competencies are change teams that respond to new requirements for software needed. applications as they emerge. No dependencies exist for middle-ware software Before engaging a procurement process or custom coding or third party tools in development, the majority of ‘systems’ requirements are areas such as business considered for internal delivery by business analysts embedded intelligence, geo-spatial into change management teams (and motivated through targeted intelligence, forms and remuneration packages to improve the process areas they serve). database design etc. Situational Applications Development is predicated on the New applications are existence of integrated software platforms that business analysts created without can use themselves to create applications to support additional software costs improvements in business processes without having to create No costs associated with custom code or acquire tools and skills that would necessitate an browser compatibility ‘IT project’. testing, applications re- working, de-bugging or This approach places focus and rewards on process improvement performance tuning is and business outcomes rather than the technology componentry. incurred. No version upgrades or Situational Applications Insourcing offers a practical alternative to maintenance costs are custom coding, software procurement or outsourcing. incurred in relation to the applications developed. 10
  11. 11. WHITE PAPER | Achieving the Most Economically Advantageous Apps Every TimeKnown RoadblocksA series of ‘road blocks’ have prohibited innovation in ITprocurement approaches for software applications. Thanks to recentdevelopments in code-free real-time applications authoring, theseroadblocks have now largely been overcome.Norms of IT buying behaviourProblem: There is a widely held view in business IT procurement circlesthat ready-built software represents a lower risk than custom-builtsoftware. This is mainly because buyers presume projects will requirecustom programming. Furthermore, IT buyers are pressured to consideroutsourcing as a means of offsetting cost without being able to monetizethe ‘downside’ of outsourcing strategies, or consider alternativeinsourcing strategies. IT buyers must look beyond accepted sourcing approaches if they are to achieve step-change cost and efficiency benefits made possible by new innovations in computing.Overcoming limitations of Web browsersProblem: Until very recently it wasn’t possible to provide assurances tocorporate IT buyers over the performance, security and usability ofapplications delivered via web browsers owing to the limitations ofoperating systems platforms and browsers. The presumption continuesto pervade that applications installed on a client or server internally aresomehow ‘better’. Recent events in the development of web-based computing such as increased competition in the web browser market resulting from Google’s entry, market acceptance of AJAX technology, the release of HTML 5, the launch by Microsoft of Active Server Pages (ASP) 3.5 etc. have collectively made possible the design, deployment and operation of Rich Internet applications in a client server architecture that perform just as well as (if not better than) pre-installed desktop and server software.Project cost and complexity resulting from programmingProblem: It is presumed that custom applications can only be developedby programming. New innovative (so-called ‘agile’) software like Encanvas Secure&Live enable the design, deployment and operation of sophisticated Rich Internet Business Applications without the need for custom programming. Applications are developed by business analysts working closely with stakeholders and users. Applications are designed in workshop environments without the need to programme. 11
  12. 12. WHITE PAPER | Achieving the Most Economically Advantageous Apps Every TimeUse of multiple development toolsProblem: It is presumed that new applications developments will requiremultiple separate technology components to discharge the variedfunctions of a business application – such as database, workflowsoftware, intranet and content management software, reporting anddashboarding (business intelligence) software, mobile computingsoftware, geo-spatial information and mapping software etc. For each ofthese software tools, unique IT competencies are needed, leading tolarge project teams and complex projects. New agile software development platforms like Encanvas adopt an approach similar to LEGO® whereby building blocks of technology are ready-made so that applications designers can create new applications with all of the necessary features supplied ‘out-of-the- box’ without custom programming.Dependence on middlewareProblem: When data is held in different systems and in different formats,it has been traditionally very difficult to acquire and return data to andfrom new software applications. Another presumption therefore existsthat it’s not possible to easily acquire and return data to differentsystems at the same time, or robustly govern the security andorganization of data. The advent of enterprise mashup technology and services oriented computing has overcome these obstacles. It means that new applications can be rapidly created that re-use data that exists in internal systems or is accessible via the web without compromising security or systems resilience. Products like Encanvas include sophisticated data acquisition, data transformation, data aggregation, data query design and database creation features thereby removing any dependency for middleware tools to exist.Software development project complexityProblem: Decades of failed IT projects have convinced IT buyers thatcustom software applications are high risk. IT projects often fail as theresult of several associated factors that combine to create complexity: 1. Organizations have been traditionally required to use many tools to develop software applications. 2. Use of multiple tools demands multiple competencies; therefore the number of people required for projects swell. 3. Communications between project outcome specifiers and deliverers break down. Applications are programmed ‘offline’ in backrooms against a design specification that must be authored at a time when it’s difficult (if not impossible) to envision the end solution and whether it will deliver an ROI. 4. The need for programming (particularly in the area of logic scripts and user interface appearance) leads to large volumes of custom code that is non re-usable yet must be tested for cross- browser compatibility, security, server performance and 12
  13. 13. WHITE PAPER | Achieving the Most Economically Advantageous Apps Every Time resilience. This results in a major cost overhead for testing and debugging on any custom project. 5. Owing to poor communications between project sponsors and deliverers, it’s common for large amounts of re-working and editing of applications to be required amounting to as much as 15% of project total costs.In simple terms, demands for custom programming and large number oftools results in project process complexity and poor collaborationbetween project sponsors and delivers resulting in high project cost, longdelivery timeframes, unpredictable ROIs and high risks. The solution to these challenges is to adopt agile design software that business analysts can use to deliver applications without needing to resort to programming and complex IT projects. 13
  14. 14. WHITE PAPER | Achieving the Most Economically Advantageous Apps Every TimeTechnology to Empower Process ImprovementThe internal delivery of situational applications by designersembedded into change teams presumes the existence ofdevelopment tools designers can master to build, deploy andsupport robust applications by themselves - without custom coding- in order to embed IT expertise into change teams.To adopt Situational Applications Insourcing three things must happen: 1. The IT function needs to be re-designed to embed IT expertise into change management teams. 2. Software must be installed that can be mastered by business analysts, giving them the ability to design and deploy new software applications without requiring large programming teams. 3. IT procurement practises must adapt to consider situational applications delivery before more costly procurement approaches.These three key steps are described in more detail here:1. Installing toolsProvision of an integrated applications platform that supports design,deployment and delivery of situational application means that analystsare able perform both design and delivery roles. This bleed of the ITfunction into change teams dramatically reduces the number of peopleengaged in IT projects and the level of expertise required of candidates.It dramatically reduces dependencies on internal programming teamsand outside consultants. Organizations like Volkswagen Group have forseveral years adopted Process Improvement Managers as part of changeteams. These individuals are expert IT professionals (traditionally businessanalysts or IT project programme managers) and possess both anunderstanding of business processes and technology. Motivated byremuneration plans associated with process improvement targets andachievements, the focus of process improvement managers is to instigateand deliver perpetual improvement in core business processes, ratherthan simply ‘build applications’.2. Installing a software platform that business analysts can useFor situational applications delivery to be successful, analysts require acommon tool-set (computing platform) that can design, deploy andoperate potentially hundreds of secure and live portal spaces containinghundreds of applications without creating a burden on IT resources orcreating performance, security and systems resilience issues. 14
  15. 15. WHITE PAPER | Achieving the Most Economically Advantageous Apps Every TimeThe economics of the platform must enable applications to be designedand then discarded, modified or sustained without high costs toencourage innovation and the creative use of IT.It’s important that business software applications can be iterativelydesigned in virtual real-time by analysts working in workshopenvironments without requiring programming teams or advanced ITprogramming skills; or the need to work with multiple technology toolsthat would demand too high a level of skills and competencies for anysingle person to master application design. It’s important that theselected software application platform delivers Rich Internet experiencesand levels of collaboration now expected of modern applications – abenchmark standard that is guided by the quality of applications offeredto consumers by both Apple and Google.3. IT procurement practises must adaptUnless IT procurement practises adapt, possibilities for insourcingthrough situational applications delivery can never be achieved assuccessive applications requirements are packaged into boxes forprocurement without consideration being given to alternative sourcingapproaches.Encanvas Secure&Live is an example of a purpose-built technologyplatform to support situational applications delivery by analysts.Encanvas adopts technology architecture similar in ethos to LEGO®,employing ready-made building blocks of technology by a single personwith a single skills-set to author applications that install new ways ofcapturing, analyzing, presenting and sharing information. Noprogramming skills are required to use the software. All of thecomponents found in Encanvas are built in the same way – includingdesign elements for business intelligence, mapping, social networkingand collaboration etc. – so one person can ably deliver cradle-to-gravesoftware applications without exhaustive knowledge of traditional ITcompetencies.Encanvas is designed purposely to meet the requirements ofbusiness analysts. For this reason, it includes technology advancesthat overcome the roadblocks that surface when moving towardssituational applications delivery. The software platform includes aninclusive security model and a unique user and group securityarchitecture that embraces incumbent identity managementdirectories and builds new federated security structures. 15
  16. 16. WHITE PAPER | Achieving the Most Economically Advantageous Apps Every TimeEvidence of ResultsMoving to situational applications delivery for business applicationsis a proven formula for rapid ROI in the creation of cost-effective,low risk projects as evidenced by these examples kindly provided byEncanvas Inc.Ernst & YoungThe senior partners of one of the largest and most successfulprofessional services firms were finding it extremely difficult to evidencetheir supplier credentials for new projects owning to weaknesses in theirIT systems. Whilst much was known about past projects, clients and staffexpertise, none of this information was in a single place. As aconsequence, much manual work was involved in bringing togetherevidentiary content for inclusion into bids.In the full knowledge that no off-the-shelf solution existed, and withmany varied expectations being outlined by the many country leads, theproject lead for the international Power and Energy Knowledge Centerelected to use Encanvas to work iteratively with business analysts todevelop a solution. Over a period of 6-weeks a series of forms and datastructures were designed that aggregated data and presented a ‘singlepage view’ of past Ernst & Young projects. With the advantage ofiterative development, the system was seen to offer a best-fit solutionafter 12-weeks of User Acceptance Testing and was later adopted as anenterprise system.Transport for LondonIn 2003, the world’s largest metropolitan transport authority, responsiblefor both the strategic planning and provision of transport services forLondon found itself challenged to meet new compliance requirements asthe result of the 2004 Traffic Management Act. The lack of coordinationof road works undertaken by street works undertakers including its ownactivities and those of the 33 London boroughs meant there was anunnecessary frequency of disruptive works across the region. Seldom didon organization take advantage of work being undertaken by another tominimize congestion.It was recognized that a cross-industry partnership working portal wasneeded that could capture the relevant details of proposed works,accurately plot them and then make the proposed works available forviewing to all interested parties in a secure environment to enablecoordination and arbitration processes that would ensure the mostefficient implementation of the proposed works.Having proven that, by using Encanvas, it was possible to edit maps (plotroad works) and store spatial data in one integral record, the applicationwas built and deployed as a secure extranet in 6.5 man-days during anelapse period of 12-weeks. 16
  17. 17. WHITE PAPER | Achieving the Most Economically Advantageous Apps Every TimeCanon Europe LtdNew compliancy procedures required by its Japanese parent meant thatthe European marketing headquarters operation of Canon BusinessSolutions was given a 6-week deadline to formalize the way it managedlicense distribution of the utility software tools it provided with itshardware. An administrative system was needed to monitor thedistribution of software utilities across Europe with 100% traceability andfull statistical analysis capabilities. From concept to completion, theinternal team used Encanvas to develop and deploy a solution in lessthan 2-weeks.Sponsor comments - ‘Against a very tight deadline, we’ve achieved thedelivery of a sustainable compliance management solution thatminimizes administrative overheads placed on the team.’West Sussex County CouncilAt the introduction of the Traffic Management Act in 2004, WSCCidentified the current information management of the Council wasunworkable if all aspects of the new legislation were to be met. Engineerswere required to reference six different systems to build a picture ofplanning considerations – and even then mistakes could be easily made.The project team identified the sources of data from across thedepartment and mapped out requirements. Samples of each of the datasources were gathered and a ‘start-point’ proof of concept wasdeveloped. This was presented to a workshop of users and stakeholderswho spent a day discussing the format and operation of the system. Thesystems design was completed during workshops and a fully functioningsystem was deployed in 2 days.Sponsor comments - ‘It is via Encanvas that we were able to demonstrateregionally what true GIS coordination was about, before any of the laterindustry systems.’West Midlands ‘Matisse’ Project (telent ltd)The Transport Authority for the West Midlands (UK) operating a transportand travel incident management and information system covering urban,suburban and countryside road and street networks, inter-urbanexpressways, public bus transport network, train information, parking,cycle routes, freight and delivery routes. The existing traffic informationsystem consumed the annual budget on maintenance alone leaving noresources for improvement. This meant that new users and uses couldn’tbe accommodated although a new legislative was leading to demand forricher, more accessible information.Using Encanvas, the system was re-developed as a client-server solutionable to support no-client browser use. The application included geo-mapping of data, data entry/update forms and reports. Encanvas waschosen as it presented the most economically advantageous option,providing the fastest application time to market and lowest operationaloverhead for customer. Other rewards included affordable economics,reduced project risk, sustainability and adaptability. 17
  18. 18. WHITE PAPER | Achieving the Most Economically Advantageous Apps Every TimeQualifying the ROITo measure the ROI advantages of insourcing made possible bysituational applications delivery you don’t need to expose yourorganization to high risk or costs.Trial implementations from software platform suppliers like Encanvasmean that organizations can affordably trial situational applicationsdelivery by simply equipping one or two business analysts with the skillsand tools they need to develop applications on-demand.Vendors like Encanvas provide introductory programmes combiningtraining, coaching and software provisioning to equip organizations withthe know-how and tools to move to situational applications delivery as asustainable model for supporting systems modernization and processimprovement.The Encanvas AgileWorkshop offering consists of the following:Introduction to Situational Applications Delivery1-day WorkshopTraining for Developers3-day training (normally onsite)Coaching and Knowledge TransferIncluding the provisioning of knowledge transfer for business analystsand IT departments3-days of consulting timePlatform Supply and InstallationSupplied on 21-day trial 18
  19. 19. WHITE PAPER | Achieving the Most Economically Advantageous Apps Every TimeContact informationAbout the AuthorPreviously holding a series of Sales and Marketing Management andDirectorship positions in the European IT industry, in 2002 Ian Tomlin co-founded the International Management Consultancy NDMC Ltd whoseportfolio of clients includes some of the world’s largest public and privatesector organizations.With Nick Lawrie he co-authored ‘Agilization’, a guide to regeneratingcompetitiveness for Western World companies. Ian Tomlin has authoredseveral other business books and hundreds of articles on businessstrategy, IT and organizational design including ‘Cloud Coffee House’, aguide to the impact of cloud social networking on business and ‘SocialOperating Systems’, an exploration into the next generation of enterprisecomputing platform.About NDMC LtdNDMC is a management consultancy that specializes in helpingorganizations to establish stretch strategies and build organizations withthe means to become serial stretchers. We help organizations to createcustomer value and engineer a step-change in performance using ablend of methods and tools that create agility in operational capabilities.For further information please visit Ltd(Americas) +1 201 777 3398(Europe) +44 1865 596151All information of whatever kind and which is contained in this documentation shallbe called for the purposes of this project ‘Confidential Information’ and remains theproperty of NDMC Ltd. All trademarks and trade names used within this documentare acknowledged as belonging to their respective owners. 19