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ICTs, development and
             government: from
        e-Readiness to e-Awareness
                                   ...
Agenda


 • Why should access (to ICTs) be fostered?

 • What do we mean by access?

 • How has been access measured and w...
Why should access be
            fostered?


Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09

© 2008/09 Universitat Obert...
Why fostering access


 Evidence shows:

 • Positive impact on sociability and personal relationships
   (communication)
 ...
Why fostering access




                                                     Christine Zhen-Wei Qiang, Alexander Pitt
   ...
Why fostering access




                                                              Christine Zhen-Wei Qiang,
         ...
Why fostering access




                                                              Christine Zhen-Wei Qiang,
         ...
Why fostering access


 ICTs necessary for
   Investment
   Livelihood support
   Entrepreneurship

 ICTs facilitate
   Co...
Why fostering access



Health                                             Governance
  e-Health                          ...
What do we mean by
                access?


Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09

© 2008/09 Universitat Obert...
What is the Digital Divide?


                                                         BUT: In 1994,
                     ...
What is the Digital Divide?




                                                    ITU (2006). World
                    ...
What is the Digital Divide?




Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09

© 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Cataluny...
Fostering the Information
                           Society


                          ICTs                     ?       ...
What is access


 Two (main) models (and a half):

 Telecommunications model:
    Capability to send one’s message – THE E...
The telecom aproach




                ICTs                               ?   Development

             Policies         ...
The e-Readiness approach




                 ICTs                              ?   Development

             Policies    ...
How has been access
     measured and why
   measurements do or do
         not work?

Executive Master in e-Governance (e...
How to measure access


 •      Theoretical models
 •      One time assessments
 •      Indices
 •      Data Sets

 Compos...
Distribution of indicators




•   Lack of available indicators, analyses difficult to be made
•   Tiny concern about the ...
Supply vs. demand indicators




• Absolute predominance of supply side indicators



Executive Master in e-Governance (e-...
Share of indicators
                                                   E-Readiness
                                       ...
Share of indicators




E-Readiness
 approach




 Telecom
 approach

Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09

 ©...
Share of indicators




E-Readiness
 approach




  Telecom
  approach
   Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09...
A Comprehensive Model


          Infrastructures             ICT Sector      Digital Skills      Legal        Content and...
What can be done to
             foster access?


Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09

© 2008/09 Universitat ...
Some… evidences?


 •      Highly significant correlation amongst almost all digital
        variables, no evident causali...
Infrastructures




Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09

© 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC       ...
ICT Sector




Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09

© 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC            ...
Digital Skills




Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09

© 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC        ...
Legal Framework




Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09

© 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC       ...
Usage




Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09

© 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC              32
Socioeconomic environment




Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09

© 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya ...
Digital literacy


 Correlation between LiveJournal users and FaceBook users
    and significant

 BUT

 Relationships of ...
e-Readiness and
                      e-Government


Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09

© 2008/09 Universit...
e-Readiness & e-Governance

                                                                  •   TelCos Law
             ...
e-Readiness & e-Governance
                  e-Readiness                      ICT Sector & Content and Services           ...
Barcelona, October 20th, 2008. Universitat Oberta de Catalunya

 To cite this work:
 Peña-López, Ismael. (2008)
 ICTs, dev...
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ICTs, development and government: from e-Readiness to e-Awareness

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ICTs, development and government: from e-Readiness to e-Awareness

  1. 1. ICTs, development and government: from e-Readiness to e-Awareness Ismael Peña-López Open University of Catalonia Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09 © 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC 1
  2. 2. Agenda • Why should access (to ICTs) be fostered? • What do we mean by access? • How has been access measured and why measurements do or do not work? • Why are there different digital development models and what can be done to foster access? • e-Readiness and e-Government Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09 © 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC 2
  3. 3. Why should access be fostered? Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09 © 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC 3
  4. 4. Why fostering access Evidence shows: • Positive impact on sociability and personal relationships (communication) • Positive impact on the (macro)economy, e.g. growth • Positive impact on the (micro)economy, e.g. productivity • Impact on employment, culture (positive and negative) New opportunities, new divides Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09 © 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC 4
  5. 5. Why fostering access Christine Zhen-Wei Qiang, Alexander Pitt and Seth Ayers. World Bank (2003) ICT & Development Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09 © 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC 5
  6. 6. Why fostering access Christine Zhen-Wei Qiang, Alexander Pitt and Seth Ayers. World Bank (2003) ICT & Development Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09 © 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC 6
  7. 7. Why fostering access Christine Zhen-Wei Qiang, Alexander Pitt and Seth Ayers. World Bank (2003) ICT & Development Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09 © 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC 7
  8. 8. Why fostering access ICTs necessary for Investment Livelihood support Entrepreneurship ICTs facilitate Cost-effective public services Cost-effective private services Nishimoto, S. & Lal, R. (2005). “Development divides and digital bridges: why ICT is key for achieving the MDGs”. In Commonwealth Secretariat (Ed.) Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09 © 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC 8
  9. 9. Why fostering access Health Governance e-Health e-Governance Genomics e-Government e-Administration Education e-Democracy e-Learning e-Participation Blended Learning m-Learning Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09 © 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC 9
  10. 10. What do we mean by access? Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09 © 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC 10
  11. 11. What is the Digital Divide? BUT: In 1994, developed countries were almost 5 points ahead than developing in mobile penetration. Ten years later, they are 58 points ahead. ITU (2006). World Telecommunication/ICT Development Report 2006: Measuring ICT for social and economic development. Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09 © 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC 11
  12. 12. What is the Digital Divide? ITU (2006). World Telecommunication/ICT Development Report 2006: Measuring ICT for social and economic development. Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09 © 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC 12
  13. 13. What is the Digital Divide? Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09 © 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC 13
  14. 14. Fostering the Information Society ICTs ? Development measure test impact test efficiency/efficacy measure Policies ? ICTs Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09 © 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC 14
  15. 15. What is access Two (main) models (and a half): Telecommunications model: Capability to send one’s message – THE EMITTER Broadcasting model: Range of products on offer – THE RECEIVER Conduits model: The ability/capacity of effective usage Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09 © 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC 15
  16. 16. The telecom aproach ICTs ? Development Policies ? ICTs Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09 © 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC 16
  17. 17. The e-Readiness approach ICTs ? Development Policies ? ICTs Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09 © 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC 17
  18. 18. How has been access measured and why measurements do or do not work? Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09 © 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC 18
  19. 19. How to measure access • Theoretical models • One time assessments • Indices • Data Sets Composed by indicators that can be categorized into: • Infrastructures • Legal framework • ICT Sector • Usage • Digital Skills All of them from the point of view of • supply • demand Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09 © 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC 19
  20. 20. Distribution of indicators • Lack of available indicators, analyses difficult to be made • Tiny concern about the affordability of infrastructures • Role of the ICT Sector is, in our opinion, underrepresented • Little effort is put to measure the digital capacity • Few existing indicators measure both the regulation of the information Society Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09 © 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC 20
  21. 21. Supply vs. demand indicators • Absolute predominance of supply side indicators Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09 © 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC 21
  22. 22. Share of indicators E-Readiness approach Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09 © 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC 22
  23. 23. Share of indicators E-Readiness approach Telecom approach Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09 © 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC 23
  24. 24. Share of indicators E-Readiness approach Telecom approach Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09 © 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC 24
  25. 25. A Comprehensive Model Infrastructures ICT Sector Digital Skills Legal Content and Framework Services Supply Assets Enterprises Digital ICT (Sector) Availability Availability Literacy Level Regulation Economy Demand Information Flows Digital Society Intensity of Affordability Workforce Literacy Strategies Use Training and Policies Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09 © 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC 25
  26. 26. What can be done to foster access? Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09 © 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC 26
  27. 27. Some… evidences? • Highly significant correlation amongst almost all digital variables, no evident causality amongst them • The main reasons for the development of a Digital Economy are analogue variables (e.g. Education, Health) • Changes in digital variables cannot be explained within the digital economy (i.e. by only changing other digital variables) • Is (digital economy based) leapfrogging a mirage? (i.e. ICTs as multipliers or catalysts, but not development locomotives) Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09 © 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC 27
  28. 28. Infrastructures Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09 © 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC 28
  29. 29. ICT Sector Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09 © 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC 29
  30. 30. Digital Skills Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09 © 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC 30
  31. 31. Legal Framework Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09 © 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC 31
  32. 32. Usage Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09 © 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC 32
  33. 33. Socioeconomic environment Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09 © 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC 33
  34. 34. Digital literacy Correlation between LiveJournal users and FaceBook users and significant BUT Relationships of causability between LiveJournal or Facebook users and Human Capital, non significant Relationships of causability between LiveJournal or Facebook users and Human Capital, non significant reflection: can digital literacy be proxied by level of education? NO? Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09 © 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC 34
  35. 35. e-Readiness and e-Government Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09 © 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC 35
  36. 36. e-Readiness & e-Governance • TelCos Law • Hardware • Infrastructures Policies Technological • Software • Foreign trade Policies Infrastructures • Connectivity • Intellectual property and patents • ICT Sector fostering • Infrastructure installation • Infrastructure maintenance ICT Sector • Infrastructure creation • Infrastructures Policies • Technological literacy • R+D+I Policies • Informational literacy • Educative Policy Digital Literacy • Media literacy Legal • e-Awareness Frame- • Intellectual property and patents work • Locally relevant content • Data protection • Content creation, transmission & • Identity in the Net commercialization • Information Society Law Content, • e-Comunication among Community • Content Policies individuals and communities & Services • e-Communication Policies • Presence in the Net & virtual • Distance learning Policies communities • Internet Governance • Foreign trade Policies • e-Services Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09 • Participative Democracy • e-Public Sector 36 © 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC • ICT4D
  37. 37. e-Readiness & e-Governance e-Readiness ICT Sector & Content and Services Leadership Technological infrastructures • Infrastructures in institutions • Realistic and • PC in institutions and agents • Infrastructures for agents working progressive goals • Affordable generic and specific with the institutions setting in the field software • Connection among institutions of digital divide • Affordable quality connectivity and with agents and e-sectors development Digital Literacy • Infrastructures maintenance • Creation of specific databases, • Identification of applications for public/private promoters • Infrastructure creation/maintenance sectors (agents, capacitation institutions) • Functional literacy • Human resources capacitation • Awareness en corresponding e- • Sponsors Content, Community & Services sector participation and involvement • Information about institutions and • Information and user/customer • Prescriptors agents feedbacking system • Specific/sectorial information, • Transparency & monitoring content, procedures • Internal • Processes shared management organization and • Use of the Net among agents and • Data sharing and agents coordination. institutions relationship/networking Legal and political • e-Services Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09 accompanying • Participation in decision stages measures • e-Public Sector © 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC 37
  38. 38. Barcelona, October 20th, 2008. Universitat Oberta de Catalunya To cite this work: Peña-López, Ismael. (2008) ICTs, development and government: from e-Readiness to e-Awareness <http://ictlogy.net/presentations/20081020_ismael_pena-lopez_-_ict_development_government.pdf> [downloaded dd/mm/aaaa] To contact the author: http://ismael.ictlogy.net All the information in this document under a Creative Commons license: Attribution – Non Commercial – No Derivs More information please visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.5/ Executive Master in e-Governance (e-Gov) 2008/09 © 2008/09 Universitat Oberta de Catalunya UOC 38

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