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  1. 1. What is a “red”? Why were they feared in the 1920’s? <ul><li>someone with communist sympathies, connection with Russian Revolution </li></ul>
  2. 2. Why were recent immigrants often portrayed as political agitators in the 1920s? <ul><li>Usually members of working class, many had radical beliefs (anarchists, socialists, etc.) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Identify two examples of immigration restriction during the 1920s. <ul><li>The quota system (set limits on # of imms from each country), 1923 Japanese Exclusion Act </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why was there a wave of strikes in 1919? How did employers respond? <ul><li>Workers wanted to gain what they had missed out on during WWI, employers called them revolutionaries and Communists </li></ul>
  5. 5. What were the primary issues that workers were striking for? <ul><li>Shorter hours, five day work week, living wage </li></ul>
  6. 6. What group wanted to form “one big union” to fight against the “employment class”? <ul><li>Industrial Workers of the World or the “Wobblies” </li></ul>
  7. 7. Whose trial was a clear example of anti-immigrant sentiment? Who took up the cause of their innocence? <ul><li>Sacco & Vanzetti, many celebrities and intellectuals </li></ul>
  8. 8. Identify two examples of anti-immigrant sentiment from the twenties. <ul><li>Sacco & Vanzetti, Al Smith, KKK, quotas & restrictions </li></ul>
  9. 9. What group worked to oppress everybody who was not a White Protestant? Why did this group grow in the 1920’s? <ul><li>KKK, tension in cities between poor whites and blacks and immigrants </li></ul>
  10. 10. What Attorney General started the “Red Scare”? Why? <ul><li>Mitchell Palmer, thought fighting Communism would help advance his political career </li></ul>
  11. 11. What legal organization was formed in response to the Palmer Raids? Name a leading member of this organization. <ul><li>ACLU, Clarence Darrow </li></ul>
  12. 12. List three characteristics of life in rural America in the 1920s. <ul><li>cultural homogeneity, religious fundamentalism, farming, traditional values, country music & ice cream socials, tough economic times </li></ul>
  13. 13. Identify three characteristics of urban America in the 1920’s. <ul><li>cultural diversity, new immigrants, religious diversity, speakeasies & jazz, manufacturing, booming economic times </li></ul>
  14. 14. What the basis of the Christian Fundamentalist movement? Name a well known fundamentalist preacher of the 1920s. <ul><li>a literal interpretation of the Bible, Billy Sunday or Aimee Semple McPherson </li></ul>
  15. 15. What was the charge in the Scopes’ Monkey Trial? What did the trial represent? <ul><li>teaching evolution, clash between rural (esp. fundamentalist) and urban values </li></ul>
  16. 16. What encouraged consumption of all kinds of new goods in the twenties? <ul><li>new marketing techniques (advertising, installment plans, mail order catalogs, etc.) </li></ul>
  17. 17. Why were so many Americans in a hurry to get rich quick in the 1920’s? What two areas did they invest in to accomplish this? <ul><li>new American dream defined by possessions, stock market and real estate </li></ul>
  18. 18. What is “buying on the margin”? <ul><li>taking a loan on profits existing stock to buy more stock </li></ul>
  19. 19. Why is buying on the margin a problem? <ul><li>market crashes, stocks lose their value, and nobody can pay back their loans </li></ul>
  20. 20. Why were so many farmers struggling to make ends meet during the 1920s? <ul><li>Overproduction (still producing at WWI levels) led to low crop prices, and many were carrying debt from new equipment purchases </li></ul>
  21. 21. What happened to all the new manufacturing capacity that had been built up producing war materials during WWI? <ul><li>It transitioned to producing new consumer goods (appliances, clothing, cosmetics, etc.) </li></ul>
  22. 22. List two new electronic conveniences of the 1920s. <ul><li>vacuum cleaner, washing machine, radio, refrigerator, toaster </li></ul>
  23. 23. What were the two big auto manufacturers in the 1920s? <ul><li>Ford & General Motors </li></ul>
  24. 24. How did the automobile change American life? <ul><li>demand for roads, faster transportation, closed distances, greater contact </li></ul>
  25. 25. Why were Republican Presidents like Harding and Coolidge so popular in the 1920’s? <ul><li>isolationist and pro-business </li></ul>
  26. 26. Identify 2 ways Harding’s tenure was scandalous. <ul><li>womanizer, seized alcohol at poker parties, embezzlement by cabinet members, Tea Pot Dome </li></ul>
  27. 27. Who took over after Harding died & cleaned up after the scandals? <ul><li>Coolidge </li></ul>
  28. 28. Describe Coolidge’s business philosophy. <ul><li>hands off, pro-ownership </li></ul>
  29. 29. What kept Al Smith from winning the 1928 Presidential election? <ul><li>urban, new immigrant, Roman Catholic </li></ul>
  30. 30. How many farmers lost their farms in the ‘20s? What institutions lost a lot of money as a result? <ul><li>1/2 million, the banks </li></ul>
  31. 31. What amendment made alcohol illegal? How successful was it in reducing consumption of alcohol? <ul><li>18th, not very </li></ul>
  32. 32. Who took over distribution of alcohol during prohibition? <ul><li>organized crime (bootleggers) </li></ul>
  33. 33. Identify two things that helped “liberate” America in the ‘20s. <ul><li>Jazz, Radio, Movies, Literature of the Lost Generation, Automobiles </li></ul>
  34. 34. Name two ways women established new independent attitudes in the 20s. <ul><li>Bobbing Hair, wearing shorter skirts, moving out on their own, voting, rejecting the sexual double standard </li></ul>
  35. 35. What amendment gave women the right to vote? Did the votes of women significantly change the American political scene? <ul><li>19th, no </li></ul>
  36. 36. Name two types of jobs commonly held by middle class women. <ul><li>nursing, teaching, higher level clerical </li></ul>
  37. 37. Name 2 big athletes of the Twenties. <ul><li>Babe Ruth, Red Grange, Bill Tilden, Jack Dempsey, Gertrude Elderle, Bobby Jones </li></ul>
  38. 38. Name two famous entertainers of the ‘20s. <ul><li>Charlie Chaplin, Gillespie, Clara Bo, Valentino, Al Jolson, Paul Robeson, Mills </li></ul>
  39. 39. Name two types of jobs commonly held by lower class women. <ul><li>factory, lower clerical, janitorial </li></ul>
  40. 40. What was the Harlem Renaissance? <ul><li>the flourishing growth of the arts in Harlem in the 1920’s </li></ul>
  41. 41. Name 2 authors that were part of the Harlem Renaissance. <ul><li>Langston Hughes, Countee Cullen, Claude McKay </li></ul>
  42. 42. Why was the Harlem Renaissance most significant? <ul><li>Was the first time Blacks were able to exert major influence over American culture, gave a voice to the Black experience </li></ul>
  43. 43. Name two writers that were part of the “Lost Generation”. Why were they lost? <ul><li>F. Scott Fitzgerald, Ernest Hemingway, Sinclair Lewis, H.L. Mencken; disillusioned by destruction of WWI </li></ul>
  44. 44. Name one of the most influential architects of the 1920’s. <ul><li>Louis Sullivan & Frank Lloyd Wright </li></ul>