Presentation on Resource for Mitigation by REDD in Copenhagen


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Presentation on Resource for Mitigation by REDD in Copenhagen at the CCWG meeting on November 24, 2009

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Presentation on Resource for Mitigation by REDD in Copenhagen

  1. 1. REDD in COPENHAGEN: SOME KEY ISSUES Richard McNally COP 15 Delegates Retreat, Hoa Binh, 23/11/2009
  2. 2. Presentation Outline <ul><li>Background </li></ul><ul><li>REDD Policy: Key Issues for Copenhagen </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>BACKGROUND </li></ul>
  4. 5. Forest and carbon
  5. 6. <ul><li>Not in KP; growing pressure to include post KP ( CRN, Stern Review etc ) </li></ul><ul><li>Bali Action Plan COP 13 [2007] includes REDD as a potential option to reach climate goals </li></ul><ul><li>COP 15 decides on REDD in post Kyoto Protocol? </li></ul><ul><li>Non Paper 39 used as negotiating text at COP 15 </li></ul><ul><li>REDD part of the Climate Action Bill in the US </li></ul><ul><li>Part of Voluntary market VCS AFOLU guidelines; projects ongoing </li></ul>Where are we on REDD?
  6. 7. <ul><li>REDD POLICY: SOME KEY ISSUES AT COP 15 </li></ul>
  7. 8. <ul><li>Scope of the agreement: RED, REDD, REDD + ? </li></ul><ul><li>Introducing and Funding REDD (+) </li></ul><ul><li>Measuring, Reporting and Verification </li></ul><ul><li>Safeguards </li></ul>
  8. 9. <ul><li>Non Paper 39: Option 1/2 </li></ul><ul><li>include [reducing emissions from deforestation and </li></ul><ul><li>forest degradation [,maintaining existing carbon </li></ul><ul><li>stocks and enhancing removals] [or increasing </li></ul><ul><li>forest cover through afforestation and </li></ul><ul><li>reforestation], [while promoting] [enhancement of </li></ul><ul><li>carbon stocks through [sustainable forest [and </li></ul><ul><li>land] management] [sustainable management of </li></ul><ul><li>forests].] </li></ul>1. The Scope
  9. 10. <ul><li>Reduced Emissions from deforestation [support by Brazil etc] ‘RED’ </li></ul><ul><li>Also include degradation ; harder to measure but critical to many countries; general support </li></ul><ul><li>REDD + [includes conservation , sustainable forest management , enhancement of forest stocks ] </li></ul><ul><li>G eneral support behind REDD + to encourage all countries involved – stop international leakage </li></ul><ul><li>Issue of defn [e.g sustainable forest management vs sustainable management of forests] </li></ul>
  10. 11. What does REDD+ include?
  11. 12. Implications for Viet Nam <ul><li>Relatively low levels of net deforestation (US$58m p.a) </li></ul><ul><li>Gross deforestation (US$145m p.a) </li></ul><ul><li>High levels of forest degradation (REDD) </li></ul><ul><li>High forest cover; degraded land favours REDD ‘+’ </li></ul><ul><li>Sub national/ nested approaches ? gross levels </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>General support for a Phased Approach: 3 Phases: </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 1 : National REDD strategy development, including national dialogue, institutional strengthening, and demonstration activities – this is happening now!!!!! (e.g. REDD Working Groups) </li></ul><ul><li>Phase 2 : Implementation of policies and measures (PAMs) proposed in those national REDD strategies </li></ul>2. Implementing and Funding REDD + REDD + ready
  13. 14. Estimate of Readiness costs!!!!!
  14. 15. <ul><li>Increased voluntary contributions to support Phase 1 [e.g. FCPF and UN REDD initiatives] </li></ul><ul><li>Some sort of Readiness Fund established for Phase II (estimate need 2 rising 10bn/year) </li></ul>
  15. 16. Readiness Funding: Non Paper 39 <ul><li>[… funded through … [market-linked revenues], </li></ul><ul><li>[innovative funding sources, Including auctioning of </li></ul><ul><li>national emissions trading allowances or of assigned amount </li></ul><ul><li>units at international level, and penalties or fines for non – </li></ul><ul><li>compliance of developed country Parties with their emission </li></ul><ul><li>reduction and financial resources commitments]. These </li></ul><ul><li>funds shall be [new and additional to ODA,] [complementary </li></ul><ul><li>to GEF, and bilateral and multilateral funding].] </li></ul><ul><li>Option 2 </li></ul><ul><li>[existing funds and institutions, including multilateral, bilateral and domestic arrangements]. </li></ul>
  16. 17. <ul><li>Phase 3 : Payment for performance on the basis of quantified forest emissions and removals against agreed reference levels which are Measured , Reported and Verified (MRV) </li></ul><ul><li>Not clear on Fund versus sold on Carbon Market (concerns over flooding), dual market, or some other combination </li></ul><ul><li>Non Paper 18 to Non Paper 39 removal of markets as stand alone option? Likely some combination </li></ul><ul><li>Lack clarity on financing for conservation and maintenance of carbon stocks </li></ul>
  17. 18. 3. Measuring, Reporting and Verification <ul><li>To measure it necessary to set Baseline/ Reference Emissions Level </li></ul><ul><li>REL: critical issue to determine potential carbon revenues and interest from Parties </li></ul><ul><li>Preference: based on national historical reference period of past emissions – deforestation/forest deg. net levels not so good for VN </li></ul>
  18. 19. Correction/development adjustment factor? <ul><li>Inclusion correction factor to reflect national circumstances? </li></ul><ul><li>E.g. historically low deforestation and forest degradation, forest transition, capacities </li></ul><ul><li>In Viet Nam the end of 661 program? </li></ul><ul><li>Determined in SBSTA </li></ul>
  19. 20. REDD and NAMA <ul><li>… . [and must be consistent with the overall approaches to MRV of Nationally Appropriate Mitigation Actions ] </li></ul><ul><li>Move towards inclusion in NAMAs/NAMA registry? implications for financing, reporting??? </li></ul><ul><li>Support for (e.g. US, Brazil and EU) and against (many tropical forest countries) </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Institutional arrangements </li></ul><ul><li>[Shall o perate under the authority and guidance of, and be fully accountable to, the COP] </li></ul><ul><li>Establish regional and national capacity-building in developing country Parties on MRV </li></ul><ul><li>COP will establish technical/expert? panels for MRVerification </li></ul>
  21. 22. 4. Safeguards – growing contention <ul><li>(a) Ensure that non-permanence is addressed; </li></ul><ul><li>(b) Ensure that necessary actions are taken to [avoid </li></ul><ul><li>leakage] [reduce leakage as much as possible]; </li></ul><ul><li>[Promote] transparent forest governance structures and accessible support mechanisms, taking into account national legislation and sovereignty </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>(e) In accordance with relevant international agreements[, such as the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples,] and taking into account national circumstances and legislation, respect the knowledge and rights of indigenous peoples[, including their free, prior and informed consent,] and members of local communities and promote the full and effective participation….. </li></ul>Rights of indigenous people/local communities
  23. 24. <ul><li>(f) [Promote] actions that are consistent with the conservation of biological diversity [, and do not provide incentives for conversion of natural forests][, including safeguards on the conversion of natural forests] and enhance other social and environmental benefits[, including [environmental] [ecosystem] services], complementary to the aims and objectives of relevant international conventions and agreements. </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of monitoring of safeguards </li></ul>Non conversion of natural forests
  24. 25. <ul><li>In Copenhagen 8 th till 17 th </li></ul><ul><li>Available any time to VN delegation ( [email_address] ) </li></ul><ul><li>Two Events : </li></ul><ul><li>Forest Day: Co Host for governance and institutional capacity- Dr Cuong speaking </li></ul><ul><li>Forest Day: Financing Event initial findings </li></ul><ul><li>Side Event on CDM and small scale projects with Practical Action </li></ul>SNV Viet Nam