HEALTHY DWELLING HEALTHY COMMUNITY

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Lecture on Healthy Dwelling by Dr. Abid Mahmood during the 6th International Infection Control Conference 2006

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HEALTHY DWELLING HEALTHY COMMUNITY

  1. 1. HEALTHY DWELLING HEALTHY COMMUNITY BDS, MCPS, FICS, PGDPA, MAS DEPARTMENT OF DENTISTRY JINNAH POSTGRADUATE MEDICAL CENTRE KARACHI
  2. 3. Basic Human Needs <ul><li>Food </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Shelter </li></ul>
  3. 4. Housing means health <ul><li>Protection against hazards to health </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socioeconomic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural </li></ul></ul>
  4. 5. Constraints <ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of population </li></ul><ul><li>Access to land </li></ul><ul><li>Urbanization </li></ul><ul><li>Policies </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of popular knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Social development </li></ul><ul><li>Unstable political and military conditions </li></ul>
  5. 7. Principles related to health needs <ul><li>Protection against communicable diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Protection against injuries, poisoning and chronic diseases </li></ul><ul><li>Reducing psychological and social stresses to a minimum </li></ul><ul><li>Improving the housing environments </li></ul><ul><li>Making informed use of housing </li></ul><ul><li>Protecting populations at special risk </li></ul>
  6. 9. Protection against communicable diseases <ul><li>Safe and adequate water supply </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sources of water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ocean 96% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glacier 1.8% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ground 1.8% </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fresh water 0.2% of all water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Harmful microorganisms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shigellae </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Salmonellae </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enteroviruses </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Protozoal and helminthic parasites </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 10. <ul><ul><li>Water borne diseases </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Diarrhoea </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Malaria </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cholera </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dysenteries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hepatitis A </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ascariasis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Typhoid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Various dermatological disorders </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 11. <ul><li>Sanitary disposal of excreta </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prime source of biological contamination of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Soil </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 12. <ul><li>Disposal of solid wastes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Solid wastes can cause </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical injuries </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Insect, pests and rodent vectors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Special population at special risk </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 13. <ul><li>Drainage of surface water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inefficient drainage leads to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communicable diseases </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Safety hazards </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Damage to property and storage </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 14. <ul><li>Personal and domestic hygiene </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily and conveniently promoted if water supply and sanitary disposal are efficient </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Special hazards due to in-house animal husbandry </li></ul>
  12. 15. <ul><li>Structural safeguard against disease transmission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design to avoid over crowding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Space and structural characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roominess </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flooring </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disease transmission </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tuberculosis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pneumonia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bronchitis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Meningitis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Measles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pertussis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rheumatic fever </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Influenza </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rubella </li></ul></ul>
  13. 16. Protection against injuries, poisoning and chronic diseases <ul><li>Structural features and furnishing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of toxic materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lead paints </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Asbestos </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Creosote </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Plastics and polymers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Poisonous synthetic materials </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faulty methods of electrification and natural gas fixtures </li></ul></ul>
  14. 17. <ul><li>Indoor air pollution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Common air pollutants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nitric oxide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon monoxide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sulphur dioxide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Formaldehyde </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Smoke, arising from combustion of firewood, charcoal, tobacco </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other organic compounds </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 18. <ul><ul><li>Diseases resulting from air pollutants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Upper and lower respiratory tract infections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Malignancy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dermatological disorders </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sick building syndrome </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allergies </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 19. <ul><li>Chemical safety </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Safety from household poisonous products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pesticides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agricultural chemicals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemicals used in home industries </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Home as work place </li></ul>
  17. 21. Reducing psychological and social stresses to a minimum <ul><li>Housing environments reduce the psychological, physical and social stresses </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate living space </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasonable privacy and comfort </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Children’s safe play area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sports and recreation area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced exposure to noise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessible community amenities </li></ul></ul>
  18. 23. Improving the housing environment <ul><li>Urban problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Over crowding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Noise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Air pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Street crimes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Isolation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rural problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socioeconomic problems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial viability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of roads and communication </li></ul></ul>
  19. 24. Making informed use of housing <ul><li>Realization of health needs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Provision and education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Motivation for optimum use of such facilities </li></ul></ul>
  20. 25. Protecting population at special risk <ul><li>Women </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prone to loss of vitality and resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Children </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Susceptible to injuries </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nutritional deficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Old, aged, chronically ill and disabled </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mentally tormented due to lack of attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foci of infection spread </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Malnourishment </li></ul></ul>
  21. 27. Conclusion <ul><li>Housing: intimately related to health </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate housing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Promotes physical and mental health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Provides psychological security </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates physical ties with community and culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yield means of identity expression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Produces healthy individuals leading to healthy community </li></ul></ul>
  22. 29. THANX FOR BEING ATTENTIVE

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