Research program on dryland cereals

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•Overview of the program
•Anchor to the CRP-Dryland Cereals
•HQ linkage to SSA programs

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Research program on dryland cereals

  1. 1. Picture here Research Program Dryland Cereals Vincent Vadez on behalf of Stefania Grando and the Research Program CCER meeting, ICRISAT, Patancheru 11 November 2013
  2. 2. Outline • Overview of the program • Anchor to the CRP-Dryland Cereals • HQ linkage to SSA programs
  3. 3. Our Crops • Essential staple for poor smallholder farmers • Sorghum - 33 million ha in sub-Saharan Africa (76%) and Asia (24%) • Millets – >30 million ha – 60% in Africa • Grain – food (55%), feed (33%), industrial uses • Stover – dry season fodder for livestock • Nutritious grains • Market opportunities • Sweet sorghum
  4. 4. Trends in demand • Population growth • Health food • Livestock feed and fodder • Industrial uses
  5. 5. Main Directions • Multi-purpose crops – Food and Nutritional security – Biofortification – Feed and fodder quality – Sweet sorghum • Resilient crops • Seed systems • Strategic partnership • Enhance genetic gains
  6. 6. • Overview of the program • Anchor to the CRP-Dryland Cereals • HQ linkage to SSA programs
  7. 7. • ICRISAT’s Strategic Plan to 2020 • CGIAR Research Program on Dryland Cereals. • Six of the seven Product Lines of the CRP- Dryland Cereals • Biofortification component of the CGIAR Research Program on Agriculture for Nutrition and Health (A4NH) • CCAFS and Dryland Systems • Strategic Partnership Our Research Agenda
  8. 8. Pearl millet for Africa and Asia • PL2. Improving food security for subsistence smallholder farmers in East and West Africa with productive and nutritious pearl millet food and fodder production technologies • PL4. Improving nutritional security with productive and nutritious finger millet production technologies for East and Southern Africa • PL6. Improving food security and income with productive, nutritious multi-purpose pearl millet hybrid production technologies for East Africa and South Asia
  9. 9. Sorghum for Africa and Asia • PL1. Supporting farmers’ transition from subsistence to market orientation with productive, nutritious, photoperiod-sensitive sorghum production packages for multiple uses in West Africa • PL3. Drought tolerant, highly productive, multi-use sorghum varieties for food and processing uses in the dry lowlands of East Africa • PL7. Multi-purpose post-rainy season sorghum hybrid production technologies for improving food and fodder availability in the driest region of South Asia
  10. 10. Focus countries SA WCA ESA Millet India (11.3 m ha) Niger (6.9) Nigeria (4.1) Mali (1.5) Burkina Faso (1.4) Senegal (1.0) Sudan (2.2) Uganda (0.5) Sorghum India (7.7) Nigeria (5.7) Burkina Faso (1.8) Mali (1.1) Sudan (6.3) Ethiopia (1.6) Tanzania (0.9) Mozambique (0.5)
  11. 11. • Overview of the program • Anchor to the CRP-Dryland Cereals • HQ linkage to SSA programs
  12. 12. Dryland Cereal research at HQ for SSA • Genomics • Phenomics for trait donors (biotic / abiotic constraints) • Biofortification • Modern breeding approaches • Crop simulation modeling
  13. 13. Genomics • Pearl Millet Genome Sequencing • 500-600 lines re- sequenced (Asia, ESA and WCA) • Pre-sequencing of finger millet • Genotyping – by – sequencing • Genome Wide Association Studies
  14. 14. • Pearl millet ICTP 8203Fe first biofortified crop variety officially released in India • Large variability for grain Fe and Zn in sorghum landraces, hybrid parents, and commercial cultivars • Database in public domain (http://hdl.handle.net/11038/10081) • Rapid phenotyping (XRF method) • WCA and ESA Biofortification
  15. 15. Lysimetre Millet HP LP Contrasting pearl millet varieties Objective : Characterize contrasting pearl millet varieties under low- P and water stress Phenotyping for drought and Low P – Lysimetric facilities Objective: Assess water use under drought Select donors for breeding HQ Niger 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 152 Germplasm tested TE(gkg-1watertranspired)
  16. 16. Isxxx – accessions with high water extraction capacity Isxxx – accessions with high TE CSM63E and Lata3 – BCNAM pop recurrent parents Cluster 1a Cluster 1b Cluster 2 Cluster 1c Cluster 3 Cluster 4a Cluster 4b Joined development of BCNAM populations
  17. 17. 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 yield(kg/ha) Inefficient Efficient Stress severity Mild stress Severe stress +++ + Characterization of stress scenarios Simulation of stress effects on yield major stress patterns 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 1100 1200 1300 1400 1500 1600 thermal time (o D) S/D vegetative pre-flowering post-flowering post-flowering relieved mild Stress scenarios Which traits confer advantage in the most frequent environment? Effects on yields
  18. 18. • Genomic tools (QTL, genome sequencing, MABC, GS, MAS) • Harnessing genetic resources • Phenotyping platforms • Breeding data management and analysis platforms Tools to enhance breeding efficiency • Trait based hybrid parents (>800 A-/B- pairs and more than 1000 R-lines) • Pearl Millet Hybrids based on IC-Patancheru bred hybrid parents, at Miwaleni, Tanzania, 2012 (30-65% yield gain) • Hybrid Parent Research Consortium for Africa
  19. 19. • Strengthening Management of Pearl Millet Downy Mildew In Sub- Saharan Africa- A Training Course • Training course on pearl millet hybrid parent improvement and seed production (36% from Africa) • Training course on sorghum hybrid parent improvement and seed production (38% from Africa) • Training course on genomics and molecular breeding (71% from Africa) • … Training of technicians and scientists
  20. 20. Thank you! ICRISAT is a member of the CGIAR Consortium

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