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NAAS Silver Jubilee
25 Years of Achievement in Agricultural Science
and Way Forward for 2030
Prof M S Swaminathan, FNA, FN...
NAAS has rendered
invaluable service to
enhancing the prestige
and purpose of
agricultural sciences as
well as public poli...
Indian Agricultural Research Institute (1947-49)
Research on Non-tuber
bearing Solanum sp.
for the Associateship of IARI
P...
Prof R Prakken
Wageningen (1949 – 50)
Genetics Department
Tuber bearing Solanum
breeding for Nematode resistance
Picture S...
Breeding for Golden Nematode Resistance
(Globodera rostochiensis)
Resistance Genes from Solanum polyadenium
Cambridge University (1950-52)
Ph.D. Research on the Origin of Potato
Picture Source: Google image
Lake Titicaca
Region
Centre of Diversity
in tuber bearing
Solanum
The Irish Potato famine of
the 1840s led to the search
f...
University of Wisconsin (1952-54)
Genetics Department
Gene transfer in potato across sexual barriers
Picture Source: Googl...
Solanum acaule
Donor of Frost
Resistance in the variety
Alaska Frostless
Gene Transfer through the
“artificial stigma” tec...
Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack (1954)
Indica - Japonica hydridization programme
The beginning of yield revolutio...
Emphasis on multipurpose projects
IARI ( 1954-72)
Breeding for High Yielding Varieties Programme
Picture Source: Google im...
Intensive Agricultural District Programme
(Package Programme)
o Launched in 1960-61 for maximising the benefits of
irrigat...
Comparison of woo-gen (right) and dee-geo-
woo-gen strains, the latter containing
the sd1 mutation
The effects of differen...
Need for Genetic checkmating of new disease threats
Puccinia Path
Innovations in the 1960s
Extension (Generating Yield Consciousness)
o National Demonstrations – 1964
o National Tonnage Cl...
IARI – Strengthening the Research Infrastructure
(1966-77)
A General view of the Atomic
Garden at the Indian Agricultural
...
“Intensive cultivation of land without conservation of soil fertility and soil
structure would lead ultimately to the spri...
“How can we speak to those who live in
villages and slums about keeping the
oceans, the rivers and the air clean when
thei...
Evergreen Revolution is the Pathway
o World requires 50% more
rice in 2030 than in 2004
with approximately 30%
less arable...
Krishi Bhavan (1972-80)
Source: Google Image
Union Planning Commission (1980-82)
New chapters on
 Environment ,
 Women and Development
 A new deal for the self
empl...
International Rice Research Institute, the Philippines
(1982-88)
 Strengthening & filling gaps in NARS
 Women in Rice Fa...
RICE BIOPARK
IN Nay Pyi Taw
Myanmar
Designed to save
and add value to
each part of the
rice biomass, such
as rice straw, h...
MSSRF (1989 onwards) : Research Centres
Chennai Chennai Kalpetta, Kerala
Poomphar PondicherryJeypore, Orissa
o Coastal System Research (CSR)
o Biodiversity & Biotechnology
o Ecotechnology & Sustainable Development
o Agriculture, Nu...
Alarming State of Malnutrition in
India
o 39% of children under 5 are stunted
o 15% under 5 are wasted
o 40% of women of r...
CALORIE
DEPRIVATION
PROTEIN
DEFICIENCY
MICRONUTRIENT
DEFICIENCY
Picture Source: Google images
Three major dimensions of hu...
Biofortification and Zero Hunger Challenge :
3 Major approaches
1. Naturally occurring biofortified plants like moringa,
s...
25 x iron in spinach
17 x calcium in milk
15 x potassium in bananas
10 x vitamin A in carrots
9 x protein in yogurt
Nation...
Rich in Nutrition; Climate Smart
Culinary Diversity
Need: All India Coordinated Research Project for Chefs
Source: CSE & Google Image
TRIBE DISTRICT
Medicinal
Plants used
Bhatra Nawarangpur
81
Bhumia Koraput 69
Bonda Malkangiri 55
Gadaba Koraput 83
Gond Na...
Science,
Vol 325,
31 July
2009
Gene Banks
for a
Warming
Planet
19 varieties of Yam in 4 species were in Cultivation (as of
2006) but less than 5 in rural market and none in urban
market...
Biofortification through breeding:
High-iron Pearl Millet
ICTP 8203
ICRISAT-bred OPV
(70-74 ppm Fe)
With 10% Higher Yield
...
Golden Rice :
Trial Site Vandalized in Bicol, Philippines
Source: Rice Today, IRRI, Oct-Dec 2013, Vol.12, No.4
Establish R...
Marker Assisted Breeding IR 38 x Jeerige sanna
BI 33 x Jeerige sanna
Azucena x Moromutant
Five mapping populations
have be...
Safe and Responsible Use of Biotechnology
Based on Cartagena Protocol
A National Biosafety Regulatory
Authority should be ...
Role of Community Hunger Fighters in Biofortification
o Become well-versed on the
causes and cures for the
endemic and hid...
Climate Change and Biodiversity :
Impact of Sea Level Rise
1. Inundation of low lying coastal lands with sea water
o milli...
Genetic Shield against Sea Level Rise
Mangrove Forests
Genetic Garden of HALOPHYTES
Obligatory halophytes Facultative halophytes
Tolerate high concentration
of sodium salts
> 3 ...
Innovations in below sea level farming in Kuttanad
ONE RICE - ONE FISH
Punja season
November- February
Low chemical input ...
Gene Bank Seed Bank Water BankGrain Bank
Conservation - Cultivation – Consumption - Commerce
Pathway to achieving the UN S...
Food Safety : Fish for All Centre, Poompuhar
Towards an Era of
Biohappiness
 Sustainable Development Goals
 Zero Hunger Challenge
 Biofortification is the Pathway
...
Jamsetji Tata National Virtual Academy (NVA) Fellows
Rural Knowledge Revolution
Addressing the occupational hazards of salt workers
Salt workers particularly
women face serious health
problems such as h...
National Food Security Bill of India, 2013
Goal : To provide food and nutritional security by ensuring access to
adequate ...
No Time to Relax : Major Challenges Ahead
o Avoiding Food losses and Food Waste
o Climate change, temperature, precipitati...
Unfinished Adventure : Zero Hunger Challenge
Picture Source: Google image
Over 60 years of Adventure in Agricultural Research & Development (© MSSRF)
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Over 60 years of Adventure in Agricultural Research & Development (© MSSRF)

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A presentation by Prof M.S Swaminathan (FNA, FNAAS, FRS, UNESCO, Chair in Ecotechnology, MSSRF, Chennai) at the NAAS Silver Jubilee -
25 Years of Achievement in Agricultural Science and Way Forward for 2030, New Delhi, 3 June 2015

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Over 60 years of Adventure in Agricultural Research & Development (© MSSRF)

  1. 1. NAAS Silver Jubilee 25 Years of Achievement in Agricultural Science and Way Forward for 2030 Prof M S Swaminathan, FNA, FNAAS, FRS UNESCO Chair in Ecotechnology, MSSRF, Chennai New Delhi, 3 June 2015 Over 60 years of Adventure in Agricultural Research & Development
  2. 2. NAAS has rendered invaluable service to enhancing the prestige and purpose of agricultural sciences as well as public policy formulation
  3. 3. Indian Agricultural Research Institute (1947-49) Research on Non-tuber bearing Solanum sp. for the Associateship of IARI Picture Source: Google image
  4. 4. Prof R Prakken Wageningen (1949 – 50) Genetics Department Tuber bearing Solanum breeding for Nematode resistance Picture Source: Google image
  5. 5. Breeding for Golden Nematode Resistance (Globodera rostochiensis) Resistance Genes from Solanum polyadenium
  6. 6. Cambridge University (1950-52) Ph.D. Research on the Origin of Potato Picture Source: Google image
  7. 7. Lake Titicaca Region Centre of Diversity in tuber bearing Solanum The Irish Potato famine of the 1840s led to the search for new genes for resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses Hawkes collection at Cambridge
  8. 8. University of Wisconsin (1952-54) Genetics Department Gene transfer in potato across sexual barriers Picture Source: Google image
  9. 9. Solanum acaule Donor of Frost Resistance in the variety Alaska Frostless Gene Transfer through the “artificial stigma” technique
  10. 10. Central Rice Research Institute, Cuttack (1954) Indica - Japonica hydridization programme The beginning of yield revolution in rice Dr K Ramiah Picture Source: CRRI, Google image
  11. 11. Emphasis on multipurpose projects IARI ( 1954-72) Breeding for High Yielding Varieties Programme Picture Source: Google image
  12. 12. Intensive Agricultural District Programme (Package Programme) o Launched in 1960-61 for maximising the benefits of irrigation water and mineral fertilizer o By 1963-64, IADP covered 15 districts o Unfortunately the impact on yield improvement was not upto expectation, since the package of practices missed one important ingredient, namely, a genetic strain which can respond to the rest of the package Swaminathan, MS, 1962
  13. 13. Comparison of woo-gen (right) and dee-geo- woo-gen strains, the latter containing the sd1 mutation The effects of different Rht alleles on plant height in wheat (cv. April Bearded). The wild-type contains Rht-B1a and Rht-D1a, which are homoeologous (corresponding) genes on the B and D genomes. Rht- B1c is a more severe allele at the Rht-B1 locus Source: http://5e.plantphys.net/ The Green Revolution in Wheat and Rice Transformational Genes Ref: Swaminathan, MS 2013 J. Agri. Research
  14. 14. Need for Genetic checkmating of new disease threats Puccinia Path
  15. 15. Innovations in the 1960s Extension (Generating Yield Consciousness) o National Demonstrations – 1964 o National Tonnage Club of Farmers (1965) o Seed Village (beginning with Jounti village to Delhi State) Public Policy: o High Yielding Varieties Programme o Minimum support Price o Public Procurement (FCI) o Public Distribution Synergy between Technology and Public policy
  16. 16. IARI – Strengthening the Research Infrastructure (1966-77) A General view of the Atomic Garden at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute showing plants grown in different sectors for being treated with gamma rays A Close-up of the Gamma Source with the seed tray and the monitor used for measuring radiation Source: Indian Farming, October 1960 Nuclear Research Laboratory Division of Genetics Source: IARI
  17. 17. “Intensive cultivation of land without conservation of soil fertility and soil structure would lead ultimately to the springing up of deserts. Irrigation without arrangements for drainage would result in soils getting alkaline or saline. Indiscriminate use of pesticides, fungicides and herbicides could cause adverse changes in biological balance as well as lead to an increase in the incidence of cancer and other diseases, through the toxic residues present in the grains or other edible parts. Unscientific tapping of underground water would lead to the rapid exhaustion of this wonderful capital resource left to us through ages of natural farming. The rapid replacement of numerous locally adapted varieties with one or two high yielding strains in large contiguous areas would result in the spread of serious diseases capable of wiping out entire crops, as happened prior to the Irish potato famine of 1845 and the Bengal rice famine of 1942. Therefore, the initiation of exploitative agriculture without a proper understanding of the various consequences of every one of the changes introduced into traditional agriculture and without first building up a proper scientific and training base to sustain it, may only lead us into an era of agricultural disaster in the long run, rather than to an era of agricultural prosperity.” M.S. Swaminathan Indian Science Congress, Varanasi, January 4, 1968 Sustainable Food Production : Early Warning
  18. 18. “How can we speak to those who live in villages and slums about keeping the oceans, the rivers and the air clean when their own lives are contaminated at the source?” Indira Gandhi added the dimension of social sustainability to economic and environmental sustainability Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment, 1972 Source: Google Image
  19. 19. Evergreen Revolution is the Pathway o World requires 50% more rice in 2030 than in 2004 with approximately 30% less arable land of today o Mainstreaming ecology in technology development and dissemination is the road to sustainable agriculture
  20. 20. Krishi Bhavan (1972-80) Source: Google Image
  21. 21. Union Planning Commission (1980-82) New chapters on  Environment ,  Women and Development  A new deal for the self employed Chapters introduced for the first time in five year plans New initiatives : National Biotechnology Board National S&T Entrepreneurship Development Board
  22. 22. International Rice Research Institute, the Philippines (1982-88)  Strengthening & filling gaps in NARS  Women in Rice Farming System  Improving Farm Income (Rice BioPark)  Genetic Resources Conservation  Sustainable Rice Farming Network IRRI – first among the CGIAR Institutes Source: Google Image
  23. 23. RICE BIOPARK IN Nay Pyi Taw Myanmar Designed to save and add value to each part of the rice biomass, such as rice straw, husk and bran
  24. 24. MSSRF (1989 onwards) : Research Centres Chennai Chennai Kalpetta, Kerala Poomphar PondicherryJeypore, Orissa
  25. 25. o Coastal System Research (CSR) o Biodiversity & Biotechnology o Ecotechnology & Sustainable Development o Agriculture, Nutrition & Health o Information Technology o Capacity Building & Networking o Gender & Development o Climate Change : Adaptation & Mitigation Anticipatory, Participatory & Strategic Research
  26. 26. Alarming State of Malnutrition in India o 39% of children under 5 are stunted o 15% under 5 are wasted o 40% of women of reproductive age are underweight, and o 48% of women of reproductive age are anaemic Source: Global Nutrition Report 2014
  27. 27. CALORIE DEPRIVATION PROTEIN DEFICIENCY MICRONUTRIENT DEFICIENCY Picture Source: Google images Three major dimensions of hunger
  28. 28. Biofortification and Zero Hunger Challenge : 3 Major approaches 1. Naturally occurring biofortified plants like moringa, sweet potato, nutri-millets and fruits and vegetables. 2. Biofortified varieties selected by breeding and selection, eg, iron rich pearl millet and zinc rich rice 3. Genetically biofortified crops like Golden Rice and iron rich rice (after appropriate regulatory clearance)
  29. 29. 25 x iron in spinach 17 x calcium in milk 15 x potassium in bananas 10 x vitamin A in carrots 9 x protein in yogurt National Geographic, November 2012 Genetic Garden of Biofortified Plants
  30. 30. Rich in Nutrition; Climate Smart Culinary Diversity
  31. 31. Need: All India Coordinated Research Project for Chefs Source: CSE & Google Image
  32. 32. TRIBE DISTRICT Medicinal Plants used Bhatra Nawarangpur 81 Bhumia Koraput 69 Bonda Malkangiri 55 Gadaba Koraput 83 Gond Nawarangpur 67 Kandha Koraput + Rayagada 124 Koya Malkangiri 48 Paroja Koraput 74 Saora Rayagada 59 9 tribes 4 districts 660 MPs Women and Cultural & Curative Diversity Farmers’ Rights : Conserver, Cultivator, Breeder Genome Saviors Tribal Families of Koraput, Odisha
  33. 33. Science, Vol 325, 31 July 2009 Gene Banks for a Warming Planet
  34. 34. 19 varieties of Yam in 4 species were in Cultivation (as of 2006) but less than 5 in rural market and none in urban market Dioscorea alata 1. Inchikachil I & II` 2. Kuzhikavithu I 3. Kuzhikavithu II 4. Quintalkachil I 5. Quintalkachil II 6. Anakomban 7. Kaduvakkayyan 8. Urulan kachil 9. Kuppathottikizhangu 10. Elivalankachil 11. Neendi/Veetukizhangu 12. Vella kachil I & II 13. Chorakachil/cherakachil/chuvappukachil/ Neela kachil I, II & III Dioscorea esculenta 14. Nanakizhangu 15. Vella Enchi kachil 16. Mullan Kachil Dioscorea rotundata 17.Africankachil 18. Thoonankachi Dioscorea bulbifera 19. Erachikachil/Adathappu Life Saving Crops in Wayanad Leveraging Agro-forestry for Nutrition
  35. 35. Biofortification through breeding: High-iron Pearl Millet ICTP 8203 ICRISAT-bred OPV (70-74 ppm Fe) With 10% Higher Yield 86M86 Pioneer hybrid (54-64 ppm Fe) Marketed by NIRMAL SEEDS
  36. 36. Golden Rice : Trial Site Vandalized in Bicol, Philippines Source: Rice Today, IRRI, Oct-Dec 2013, Vol.12, No.4 Establish Regulatory system which inspires public, professional, political and media confidence
  37. 37. Marker Assisted Breeding IR 38 x Jeerige sanna BI 33 x Jeerige sanna Azucena x Moromutant Five mapping populations have been developed and purified. Molecular markers for genes associated with iron uptake, transport and accumulation have been designed. Marker Assisted Selection is eligible for organic certification Source : Indian Biofortification Network
  38. 38. Safe and Responsible Use of Biotechnology Based on Cartagena Protocol A National Biosafety Regulatory Authority should be set up under an Act of Parliament The bottom line of our national agricultural biotechnology policy should be the economic well being of farm families, food security of the nation, health security of the consumer, biosecurity of agriculture and health, protection of the environment and the security of national and international trade in farm commodities. - M S Swaminathan Panel (2004) “To access risks and benefits from GMOs with reference to biodiversity, human and animal health and environment, a National Biosafety Authority is needed. Develop legislation using the Norwegian Model” Parliamentary Committee on Agriculture chaired by Shri Basudeb Acharya (2012)
  39. 39. Role of Community Hunger Fighters in Biofortification o Become well-versed on the causes and cures for the endemic and hidden hunger prevailing in the village / town through a nutrition literacy programme o Identify and introduce agricultural remedies to nutritional maladies based on gender and age o Introduce in the farming system biofortified crops and varieties Capacity Building
  40. 40. Climate Change and Biodiversity : Impact of Sea Level Rise 1. Inundation of low lying coastal lands with sea water o millions of ha of land would be affected o small islands would be affected very severely 2. Increased incidence of storm surges 3. Seawater intrusion into freshwater and groundwater 4. Enhancement of tidal waters into rivers 5. Accelerated coastal erosion 6. Climate Refugees will look for new areas to settle
  41. 41. Genetic Shield against Sea Level Rise Mangrove Forests
  42. 42. Genetic Garden of HALOPHYTES Obligatory halophytes Facultative halophytes Tolerate high concentration of sodium salts > 3 times of seawater salinity Even demand high NaCl for survival and reproduction 1560 species Most of the species tolerate only moderate level of salinity Reproduction requires low saline condition Mangroves 60 species Converting Sea Water into Fresh Water through Halophytes
  43. 43. Innovations in below sea level farming in Kuttanad ONE RICE - ONE FISH Punja season November- February Low chemical input or Organic Yield- 4.2 t/ha April- October Monoculture – Giant Prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) Polyculture*- Indian major carps or common carps or Silver carps and grass carps and Giant Prawn Yield- Rice: 4.2 t/ha Fish- Prawn: 480 kg; Carp : 300 kg. * Recommended practice
  44. 44. Gene Bank Seed Bank Water BankGrain Bank Conservation - Cultivation – Consumption - Commerce Pathway to achieving the UN Sustainable Development Goals Community Food and Water Security System in Koraput
  45. 45. Food Safety : Fish for All Centre, Poompuhar
  46. 46. Towards an Era of Biohappiness  Sustainable Development Goals  Zero Hunger Challenge  Biofortification is the Pathway  LANSA (Leveraging Agriculture for Nutrition in South Asia) is the effective platform for partnership
  47. 47. Jamsetji Tata National Virtual Academy (NVA) Fellows Rural Knowledge Revolution
  48. 48. Addressing the occupational hazards of salt workers Salt workers particularly women face serious health problems such as high rate of cataract, skin ulcers, high blood pressure, reduced life span etc. The Tamil Nadu Government has recently included all salt pan workers under the Chief Ministers’ Comprehensive Health Insurance Scheme. This needs to the replicated all over the country. For example, Andhra Pradesh has over 10,000 registered salt workers according to the 1998 survey. They need urgent attention. Picture Source: Google image
  49. 49. National Food Security Bill of India, 2013 Goal : To provide food and nutritional security by ensuring access to adequate quantity of quality food at affordable prices Special Features : o Life Cycle approach with emphasis on the 1000 days of a child’s life o The senior most woman in the household will be designated the Head of the Household from the point of view of food entitlements o Enlargement of the Food Basket by including nutri-millets and other orphan crops in the Public Distribution System o Entitlement : Every person belonging to priority households shall be entitled to receive five kilogram of foodgrains per person per month at subsidised prices. From Ship to Mouth to Right to Food
  50. 50. No Time to Relax : Major Challenges Ahead o Avoiding Food losses and Food Waste o Climate change, temperature, precipitation, and sea level o Shrinking per capita land and water resources o Expanding biotic and abiotic stresses o Adverse cost-risk-return structure of farming o Market volatility o Reluctance of youth to take to farming : Lack of Demographic Dividend
  51. 51. Unfinished Adventure : Zero Hunger Challenge Picture Source: Google image

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