Major Tenses: Review

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  • We are going to be concentrating on how to organize your English better. To do that, you must have a good handle on using the tenses. Our major work in this 1st 3-month session, is going to be how to use the tenses effectively. Of course we will learn vocabulary and other important things, too.\n
  • Before we go into the specific tenses, I want to tell you a little bit about English structure. You should at all times remember the basic structure of a question and a sentence, because nearly every sentence in English and nearly every question follow one of the formulas I’m going to show you. When I say “sentence” I really mean clause. A clause is one configuration of the subject and verb. An actual sentence can have many clauses. \n\n(click)\n\nThe formula for sentence is subject plus verb plus object. Here is an example :\n\n(click). \n\nTry to locate the subject, verb and object in any sentence. The more you recognize this basic structure, the easier it will be for you to use it in your own English.\n\n(click)\n\nHere is the formula for a question. First look at the elements that are not in parentheses. The auxiliary determines tense in a question. The subject is the first word you’re going to use when you answer, the SUBJECT of a sentence.\n\n(click)\n\nHere is an example. Remember that Everything you say before the auxiliary is part of the question word object\n
  • Before we go into the specific tenses, I want to tell you a little bit about English structure. You should at all times remember the basic structure of a question and a sentence, because nearly every sentence in English and nearly every question follow one of the formulas I’m going to show you. When I say “sentence” I really mean clause. A clause is one configuration of the subject and verb. An actual sentence can have many clauses. \n\n(click)\n\nThe formula for sentence is subject plus verb plus object. Here is an example :\n\n(click). \n\nTry to locate the subject, verb and object in any sentence. The more you recognize this basic structure, the easier it will be for you to use it in your own English.\n\n(click)\n\nHere is the formula for a question. First look at the elements that are not in parentheses. The auxiliary determines tense in a question. The subject is the first word you’re going to use when you answer, the SUBJECT of a sentence.\n\n(click)\n\nHere is an example. Remember that Everything you say before the auxiliary is part of the question word object\n
  • Before we go into the specific tenses, I want to tell you a little bit about English structure. You should at all times remember the basic structure of a question and a sentence, because nearly every sentence in English and nearly every question follow one of the formulas I’m going to show you. When I say “sentence” I really mean clause. A clause is one configuration of the subject and verb. An actual sentence can have many clauses. \n\n(click)\n\nThe formula for sentence is subject plus verb plus object. Here is an example :\n\n(click). \n\nTry to locate the subject, verb and object in any sentence. The more you recognize this basic structure, the easier it will be for you to use it in your own English.\n\n(click)\n\nHere is the formula for a question. First look at the elements that are not in parentheses. The auxiliary determines tense in a question. The subject is the first word you’re going to use when you answer, the SUBJECT of a sentence.\n\n(click)\n\nHere is an example. Remember that Everything you say before the auxiliary is part of the question word object\n
  • Before we go into the specific tenses, I want to tell you a little bit about English structure. You should at all times remember the basic structure of a question and a sentence, because nearly every sentence in English and nearly every question follow one of the formulas I’m going to show you. When I say “sentence” I really mean clause. A clause is one configuration of the subject and verb. An actual sentence can have many clauses. \n\n(click)\n\nThe formula for sentence is subject plus verb plus object. Here is an example :\n\n(click). \n\nTry to locate the subject, verb and object in any sentence. The more you recognize this basic structure, the easier it will be for you to use it in your own English.\n\n(click)\n\nHere is the formula for a question. First look at the elements that are not in parentheses. The auxiliary determines tense in a question. The subject is the first word you’re going to use when you answer, the SUBJECT of a sentence.\n\n(click)\n\nHere is an example. Remember that Everything you say before the auxiliary is part of the question word object\n
  • (click)\n\nThere is an exception to this rule.\n\n(click)\n\n Questions that begin with “who.” If you ask the question “who speaks English” then you do not follow the question formula. But, it will follow the regular sentence formula, sub. + verb + obj\n\n(click)\n\nBut ...\n\n(click)\n\nWhen who is not the subject of the answer, then the question rule applies. Here is an example.\n\n(click)\n
  • (click)\n\nThere is an exception to this rule.\n\n(click)\n\n Questions that begin with “who.” If you ask the question “who speaks English” then you do not follow the question formula. But, it will follow the regular sentence formula, sub. + verb + obj\n\n(click)\n\nBut ...\n\n(click)\n\nWhen who is not the subject of the answer, then the question rule applies. Here is an example.\n\n(click)\n
  • (click)\n\nThere is an exception to this rule.\n\n(click)\n\n Questions that begin with “who.” If you ask the question “who speaks English” then you do not follow the question formula. But, it will follow the regular sentence formula, sub. + verb + obj\n\n(click)\n\nBut ...\n\n(click)\n\nWhen who is not the subject of the answer, then the question rule applies. Here is an example.\n\n(click)\n
  • (click)\n\nThere is an exception to this rule.\n\n(click)\n\n Questions that begin with “who.” If you ask the question “who speaks English” then you do not follow the question formula. But, it will follow the regular sentence formula, sub. + verb + obj\n\n(click)\n\nBut ...\n\n(click)\n\nWhen who is not the subject of the answer, then the question rule applies. Here is an example.\n\n(click)\n
  • (click)\n\nThere is an exception to this rule.\n\n(click)\n\n Questions that begin with “who.” If you ask the question “who speaks English” then you do not follow the question formula. But, it will follow the regular sentence formula, sub. + verb + obj\n\n(click)\n\nBut ...\n\n(click)\n\nWhen who is not the subject of the answer, then the question rule applies. Here is an example.\n\n(click)\n
  • When you learn a tense, you need to know three things about it in order to use it effectively in communication.\n\nYou need to know when the tense is used, the auxiliaries associated with it, and the time markers that are frequently used with that tense.\n\nThe present tense is for habit and custom, its auxiliaries are do for first person and second person singular and plural, and does for third person singular.\n\nThe time markers have the effect of limiting or controlling the habits and customs of the present tense. When you use words like usually, frequently, rarely, you are controlling the limits of the tense.\n
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  • The present progressive is used for actions that are happening at the moment or are happening in and around the present. For example I’m not exercising in the gymnasium NOW, but I am visiting the gymnasium a lot THESE DAYS. When you use THESE DAYS it’s like using the present tense for habit and custom, but more limited, like an action you started last month and are still doing.\n\nThe auxiliaries are the conjugations of the present stative verb “to be.” \n\nIs for the third person singular, am for the first person singular, are for second person and for everything else (We are, they are, etc.)\n\nThe time markers ar “now” for actions that are happening in this moment, and “these days” for actions that are happening in your life within a limited time, as I explained before.\n
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  • Major Tenses: Review

    1. 1. The Tenses A Short Intro Peter Mangiaracina
    2. 2. Structure 1• At all times, remember the basic structure of a question and a sentence: Peter Mangiaracina
    3. 3. Structure 1 • At all times, remember the basic structure of a question and a sentence:Sentence: Subject + Verb + (Object) Peter Mangiaracina
    4. 4. Structure 1 • At all times, remember the basic structure of a question and a sentence: Sentence: Subject + Verb + (Object)The doctors treat the patients Subject Verb Object Peter Mangiaracina
    5. 5. Structure 1 • At all times, remember the basic structure of a question and a sentence: Sentence: Subject + Verb + (Object) Question: (Q word + (obj)) + Auxiliary + Subject + (Verb)?The doctors treat the patients Subject Verb Object Peter Mangiaracina
    6. 6. Structure 1 • At all times, remember the basic structure of a question and a sentence: Sentence: Subject + Verb + (Object) Question: (Q word + (obj)) + Auxiliary + Subject + (Verb)?The doctors treat the patients What time does this class begin? Subject Verb Object QW QW Obj Auxiliary Subject Verb Peter Mangiaracina
    7. 7. Structure 2 Peter Mangiaracina
    8. 8. Structure 2Exception: Peter Mangiaracina
    9. 9. Structure 2Exception: *When “who” is the subject in a question, the question looks like a sentence: Peter Mangiaracina
    10. 10. Structure 2Exception: *When “who” is the subject in a question, the question looks like a sentence: Who speaks English? Subject Verb Object Peter Mangiaracina
    11. 11. Structure 2Exception: *When “who” is the subject in a question, the question looks like a sentence: Who speaks English? Subject Verb Object *”Who” does follow the question rule when it is the object of the answer: Peter Mangiaracina
    12. 12. Structure 2Exception: *When “who” is the subject in a question, the question looks like a sentence: Who speaks English? Subject Verb Object *”Who” does follow the question rule when it is the object of the answer: Who does Peter speak English to? QWord Auxiliary Subject Verb Object Peter Mangiaracina
    13. 13. Simple PresentUse: Habit and customAuxiliaries : Do, Does Usually, always, sometimes,Time Markers:frequently, seldom, every day, ever? etc. Peter Mangiaracina
    14. 14. Examples I You walk on the beach every day. We They He She rarely walks on the beach. It Do you ever walk on the beach?QuestionS: When does he usually walk on the beach? Peter Mangiaracina
    15. 15. Examples time I marker You walk on the beach every day. We They He She rarely walks on the beach. It Do you ever walk on the beach?QuestionS: When does he usually walk on the beach? Peter Mangiaracina
    16. 16. Examples time I marker You walk on the beach every day. We They He She rarely walks on the beach. It time marker Do you ever walk on the beach?QuestionS: When does he usually walk on the beach? Peter Mangiaracina
    17. 17. Present ProgressiveUse : Actions happening now or these days.Auxiliaries : is, am, are (+gerund) : now, these days, frequentlyTime Markersfollows an imperative. Peter Mangiaracina
    18. 18. ExamplesI am learning English now. He She is learning English these days. It You We are learning English They Is he learning English these days?QuestionS: Are they learning English now? Why am I learning English? Peter Mangiaracina
    19. 19. Examples time markerI am learning English now. He She is learning English these days. It You We are learning English They Is he learning English these days?QuestionS: Are they learning English now? Why am I learning English? Peter Mangiaracina
    20. 20. Examples time markerI am learning English now. time marker He She is learning English these days. It You We are learning English They Is he learning English these days?QuestionS: Are they learning English now? Why am I learning English? Peter Mangiaracina
    21. 21. Simple Past : (1). Actions that completed at aUsespecific time in the past. (2). Repeatedpast actions.Auxiliaries : Did yesterday, last (week, month,Time Markers:year, etc.), ago, in (+year, month, date inpast) Peter Mangiaracina
    22. 22. ExamplesCompleted definite time in past I walked on the beach yesterday.Repeated past action grandmother visited him every week His when he was sick.QuestionS: Did you watch the presentations for class? How long ago did you finish medical school? Peter Mangiaracina
    23. 23. ExamplesCompleted definite time in past time I walked on the beach yesterday.Repeated past action grandmother visited him every week His when he was sick.QuestionS: Did you watch the presentations for class? How long ago did you finish medical school? Peter Mangiaracina
    24. 24. ExamplesCompleted definite time in past time I walked on the beach yesterday.Repeated past action grandmother visited him every week His when he was sick.QuestionS: Did you watch the presentations for class? How long ago did you finish medical school? time marker Peter Mangiaracina
    25. 25. Past ProgressiveUse: (1).Ongoing actions in the past at a specific hour. (2).Ongoing actions interrupted by another action in the past.(3) also used with the word "while" to indicate concurrentactions in the past.Auxiliaries: was, were (+gerund)Time Markers: specific hour (1 pm, 5 o’clock, etc.), interruptedaction, concurrent ongoing actions in past. Peter Mangiaracina
    26. 26. ExamplesOngoing action at specific hourI was walking on the beach yesterday at 5 o’clock.Ongoing action interrupted by another (past) action was having dinner when his mother He called.QuestionS: What were you doing at 3 pm yesterday? Who was singing when I came into the room? Peter Mangiaracina
    27. 27. Examples timeOngoing action at specific hour markerI was walking on the beach yesterday at 5 o’clock.Ongoing action interrupted by another (past) action was having dinner when his mother He called.QuestionS: What were you doing at 3 pm yesterday? Who was singing when I came into the room? Peter Mangiaracina
    28. 28. Examples timeOngoing action at specific hour markerI was walking on the beach yesterday at 5 o’clock.Ongoing action interrupted by another (past) action was having dinner when his mother He called. InterruptionQuestionS: What were you doing at 3 pm yesterday? Who was singing when I came into the room? Peter Mangiaracina
    29. 29. Present PerfectUse: For Unfinished time. The action is not important,the time frame in which the action occurs is important.Auxiliaries : has (3rd person singular); have (the rest) today, this week, this month, in my life,Time Markers:a time of day that is not finished. Various adverbsof time (to be continued). Peter Mangiaracina
    30. 30. Contrasting past with Present Perfect Finished Time: I had four lessons last week. Unfinished Time: I have had four lessons today. Peter Mangiaracina
    31. 31. ExamplesUnfinished time I have visited the hospital this week.He has visited Rome three times (in his life).QuestionS: How long have you lived in Las Palmas? How many patients have you treated in the past year? Has John taken his medicine today? Peter Mangiaracina
    32. 32. ExamplesUnfinished time time marker I have visited the hospital this week.He has visited Rome three times (in his life).QuestionS: How long have you lived in Las Palmas? How many patients have you treated in the past year? Has John taken his medicine today? Peter Mangiaracina
    33. 33. ExamplesUnfinished time time marker I have visited the hospital this week.He has visited Rome three times (in his life). time markerQuestionS: How long have you lived in Las Palmas? How many patients have you treated in the past year? Has John taken his medicine today? Peter Mangiaracina
    34. 34. Important Time Markers Present Perfect yet so far justalready up to now always*recently ever?* since (+ point in time) for (+ duration of lately never time) Peter Mangiaracina
    35. 35. Adverbs of Frequency Examples•Have you eaten lunch yet?- Yes, I’ve eaten lunch already.•Have you seen any good movies recently/lately?•I have just started the class. It started a few minutes ago.•Have you enjoyed your English classes so far?•I have enjoyed his jokes up to now, but his last joke went too far.•Have you ever taken English classes from Peter? - No, I have never had the pleasure.•Have you always wanted to be a doctor?•I have lived in Las Palmas for 17 years.•I have lived in Las Palmas since 1995. Peter Mangiaracina
    36. 36. Present Perfect ProgressiveUse: 1). Indicates a duration of an activity that began inthe past and has continued up to now withoutinterruption. When it has this meaning, time markerssuch as for, since, all morning, all day, all week etc. areused. 2). When there is no specific mention of time, themeaning is recently or lately. 3). With certain verbs,notably live, work, teach, no difference in meaningbetween pres. perf. and pres. perf. prog. 4). Stativemeanings are not used in the pres. perf. prog.Auxiliaries : has been + gerund (3rd person singular);have been + gerund (the rest) same as pres. perf. with conditionsTime Markers:stated above. Peter Mangiaracina
    37. 37. Examples It has been snowing all day. has been ringing for almost aThe telephone minute. QuestionS: How long have you been living (lived) in Las Palmas? Have you been waiting long? What have you been doing lately? Peter Mangiaracina
    38. 38. Examples time marker It has been snowing all day. has been ringing for almost aThe telephone minute. QuestionS: How long have you been living (lived) in Las Palmas? Have you been waiting long? What have you been doing lately? Peter Mangiaracina
    39. 39. Examples time marker It has been snowing all day. has been ringing for almost aThe telephone minute. time marker QuestionS: How long have you been living (lived) in Las Palmas? Have you been waiting long? What have you been doing lately? Peter Mangiaracina

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