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Middle Colonies & the Lower South<br />
Themes<br /><ul><li>Middle Colonies: New York & Pennsylvania
Colonies of the Lower South: South Carolina & Georgia
Early history of these colonies
Describe the life of slaves living in South Carolina</li></li></ul><li>
New York<br />Early Dutch Claims<br /><ul><li>Henry Hudson explored the Hudson River in 1609
Fort Nassau was founded in 1614 near Albany
New Netherland was established in 1625 on Manhattan Island</li></li></ul><li>New York<br /><ul><li>Dutch West India Fur Co...
Fur trade was key to the regional economy
Encouraged migration to the colony with “patroonships” – large tracts of land awarded to individuals bringing 50 or more s...
Practice led to large estates & an elite class</li></li></ul><li>New York<br /><ul><li>About 9,000 lived in New Netherland...
Tension grew between the English & the Dutch in the area
England sent a force of ships to conquer the Dutch settlement
Peter Stuyvesant surrendered to the English in 1664
New Netherland became New York</li></li></ul><li>Dutch Legacy<br /><ul><li>Diverse population:
Dutch, English, German, French, Scandinavian, & African
Protestants, Catholics, Jews, & Muslims
Place names & customs:
Brooklyn, Harlem
Easter eggs, waffles</li></li></ul><li>Pennsylvania<br />William Penn<br /><ul><li>Son of Admiral Sir William Penn
Became a Quaker as a student at Oxford
Inherited land extending westward from the Delaware River</li></li></ul><li>Pennsylvania<br />William Penn<br /><ul><li>Ma...
Established cordial relations with the Native Americans
Called his chief city “Philadelphia” – the city of brotherly love</li></li></ul><li>Pennsylvania<br />Quakers<br /><ul><li...
Founded by George Fox in 1647
Believed in the doctrine of individual inspiration & interpretation – the “inner light”</li></li></ul><li>Pennsylvania<br ...
Wanted complete religious freedom for all, equality of the sexes, & full participation of women in religious affairs
Were subject to intense persecution</li></li></ul><li>South Carolina<br /><ul><li>Charles II granted land south of Virgini...
Given the title of Lord Proprietors
Able to exercise their authority with virtual independence</li></li></ul><li>South Carolina<br />Background<br /><ul><li>S...
Many of its early settlers came from colonies in the Caribbean, particularly Barbados
Persecution in the early 1600s had led many to leave England
About 110,000 settled in the West Indies</li></li></ul><li>South Carolina<br />Background<br /><ul><li>Sugar production wa...
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Middle Colonies & the Lower South

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Middle Colonies & the Lower South

  1. 1. Middle Colonies & the Lower South<br />
  2. 2. Themes<br /><ul><li>Middle Colonies: New York & Pennsylvania
  3. 3. Colonies of the Lower South: South Carolina & Georgia
  4. 4. Early history of these colonies
  5. 5. Describe the life of slaves living in South Carolina</li></li></ul><li>
  6. 6. New York<br />Early Dutch Claims<br /><ul><li>Henry Hudson explored the Hudson River in 1609
  7. 7. Fort Nassau was founded in 1614 near Albany
  8. 8. New Netherland was established in 1625 on Manhattan Island</li></li></ul><li>New York<br /><ul><li>Dutch West India Fur Company founded New Netherland in 1625
  9. 9. Fur trade was key to the regional economy
  10. 10. Encouraged migration to the colony with “patroonships” – large tracts of land awarded to individuals bringing 50 or more settlers
  11. 11. Practice led to large estates & an elite class</li></li></ul><li>New York<br /><ul><li>About 9,000 lived in New Netherland by the 1660s
  12. 12. Tension grew between the English & the Dutch in the area
  13. 13. England sent a force of ships to conquer the Dutch settlement
  14. 14. Peter Stuyvesant surrendered to the English in 1664
  15. 15. New Netherland became New York</li></li></ul><li>Dutch Legacy<br /><ul><li>Diverse population:
  16. 16. Dutch, English, German, French, Scandinavian, & African
  17. 17. Protestants, Catholics, Jews, & Muslims
  18. 18. Place names & customs:
  19. 19. Brooklyn, Harlem
  20. 20. Easter eggs, waffles</li></li></ul><li>Pennsylvania<br />William Penn<br /><ul><li>Son of Admiral Sir William Penn
  21. 21. Became a Quaker as a student at Oxford
  22. 22. Inherited land extending westward from the Delaware River</li></li></ul><li>Pennsylvania<br />William Penn<br /><ul><li>Made efforts to bring new people into this area
  23. 23. Established cordial relations with the Native Americans
  24. 24. Called his chief city “Philadelphia” – the city of brotherly love</li></li></ul><li>Pennsylvania<br />Quakers<br /><ul><li>Quakers = Society of Friends
  25. 25. Founded by George Fox in 1647
  26. 26. Believed in the doctrine of individual inspiration & interpretation – the “inner light”</li></li></ul><li>Pennsylvania<br />Quakers<br /><ul><li>Discarded all formal ministry, refused to take oaths, embraced pacifism
  27. 27. Wanted complete religious freedom for all, equality of the sexes, & full participation of women in religious affairs
  28. 28. Were subject to intense persecution</li></li></ul><li>South Carolina<br /><ul><li>Charles II granted land south of Virginia to 8 supporters in 1663
  29. 29. Given the title of Lord Proprietors
  30. 30. Able to exercise their authority with virtual independence</li></li></ul><li>South Carolina<br />Background<br /><ul><li>Settlement in the area began in 1670
  31. 31. Many of its early settlers came from colonies in the Caribbean, particularly Barbados
  32. 32. Persecution in the early 1600s had led many to leave England
  33. 33. About 110,000 settled in the West Indies</li></li></ul><li>South Carolina<br />Background<br /><ul><li>Sugar production was key to the Caribbean economy
  34. 34. Required large labor force
  35. 35. Originally relied on indentured servants
  36. 36. Soon replaced by African slaves</li></li></ul><li>South Carolina<br /> In the 1670s, many migrated from the Caribbean to the Carolinas where they began to grow rice<br />
  37. 37. South Carolina<br />Search for a Labor Force<br /><ul><li>By 1710s, blacks outnumbered whites in SC
  38. 38. Indentured Servants
  39. 39. African Slaves
  40. 40. Slaves for life
  41. 41. Had knowledge of rice cultivation
  42. 42. Immune to malaria & yellow fever
  43. 43. Led to a black majority in SC by 1710s</li></li></ul><li>Slave Trade<br /><ul><li>Largest forced migration in human history
  44. 44. Involved about 10 million Africans
  45. 45. About 400,000 were sent to the colonies
  46. 46. Most were from West Africa</li></li></ul><li>Slave Trade<br />
  47. 47. Slave Trade<br />Middle Passage <br /><ul><li>Journey took from 6 weeks to 3 months
  48. 48. Shipping companies competed to design ships that would fit the most slaves
  49. 49. Crowded, unsanitary conditions
  50. 50. Between 10-20% on the voyage</li></li></ul><li>Slave Trade<br />
  51. 51. Life under Slavery<br />Brutality<br /><ul><li>Slaves were bought and sold like animals
  52. 52. Worked long hours & could be punished for no reason
  53. 53. Lived in 1-room shacks with dirt floors
  54. 54. Ate corn & salted pork</li></li></ul><li>Life under Slavery<br />Holding onto African Heritage<br /><ul><li>Children were given African names
  55. 55. Music reflected African origins
  56. 56. Gullah – A language made up of African & English words</li></li></ul><li>Life under Slavery<br />Slave Resistance <br />Small in number<br />Small in number<br />Frequent<br />Completely submissive & obedient<br />Completely resistant<br />Subtle resistance<br />
  57. 57. Life under Slavery<br />Slave Resistance<br /><ul><li>Breaking or pretending not to know how to use tools, faking illnesses
  58. 58. Escape for short periods of time</li></li></ul><li>Stono Rebellion (1739)<br />Context<br /><ul><li>Yellow fever outbreak in Charleston
  59. 59. Increased hostilities between England & Spain</li></li></ul><li>Stono Rebellion (1739)<br />Beginnings<br /><ul><li>Twenty slaves, led by a slave named Jemmy, broke into a store
  60. 60. Took weapons & gunpowder
  61. 61. Killed the storekeepers – placed their heads on display</li></li></ul><li>Stono Rebellion (1739)<br />Beginnings<br /><ul><li>Joined by slaves from other plantations
  62. 62. Eventually totaled 60-100 slaves
  63. 63. Traveled south, toward Spanish Florida
  64. 64. Burned 7 plantations & killed 20-25 whites along the way</li></li></ul><li>Stono Rebellion (1739)<br />Continued<br /><ul><li>Confronted by the local militia the next day
  65. 65. 20 whites & 44 slaves were killed
  66. 66. Heads of the rebels were mounted on stakes along major roadways to serve as a warning
  67. 67. Largest slave rebellion of the colonial era</li></li></ul><li>Stono Rebellion (1739)<br />Aftermath<br /><ul><li>A new Slave Code was passed
  68. 68. Slave patrols were expanded
  69. 69. Fined slave owners who did not keep control of their slaves</li></li></ul><li>Georgia<br /><ul><li>Founded in 1732 & named for King George II
  70. 70. Created as a buffer between South Carolina & Spanish Florida</li></li></ul><li>Georgia<br />Background<br /><ul><li>A group of trustees was charged with ruling the colony in its early years
  71. 71. One trustee, James Oglethorpe, was key to the colony’s early history
  72. 72. Hoped the colony could serve as a haven for debtors who could leave jail if they agreed to relocate in Georgia
  73. 73. Prohibited slavery & alcohol
  74. 74. Limited landholdings to 500 acres</li></li></ul><li>Georgia<br />Early History<br /><ul><li>Population totaled nearly 3,000 by the 1740s
  75. 75. Settlers came from Germany, Switzerland, Scotland, & England
  76. 76. Missionaries, including John Wesley, attempted to spread Christianity</li></li></ul><li>Georgia<br />Early History<br /><ul><li>Ultimately, the population remained small & early goals were not reached
  77. 77. By 1750, slavery had been legalized & size limits for landholdings were lifted
  78. 78. Life began to resemble that in South Carolina with the rise of an elite planters who relied on slave labor</li>

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