European Exploration<br />
European Exploration<br />Early Exploration<br />Why?<br />Spain’s Spark<br />France<br />England<br />Roanoke (1580s)<br ...
European Exploration – Why?<br />Economic<br /><ul><li>Trade route to the Indies
Gold & other riches
Land for expansion</li></li></ul><li>European Exploration – Why?<br />Religion<br /><ul><li>Escape persecution
Spread Christianity</li></li></ul><li>European Exploration – Why?<br />Curiosity / Adventure<br />Forced Migration<br /><u...
Not the first European to cross the ocean
Map of European Exploration
His voyages led to permanent settlements</li></li></ul><li>European Exploration – Spain<br />Hernando Cortez<br />Goal: Fi...
Destroyed his ship
Conquered the Aztecs in 1521</li></li></ul><li>European Exploration – Spain<br />Aztecs & Spanish<br />Spanish Success<br ...
Smallpox decimated the native population
Differing views of warfare
Spanish technology
Horses & steel</li></li></ul><li>European Exploration – Spain<br />Juan de Onate<br /><ul><li>Led conquistadors in New Mex...
Crushed the native population at the village of Acoma
About 800 people were killed
Women & children were sold into slavery
Men had one foot cut off</li></li></ul><li>European Exploration – Spain<br />San Esteban Rey – Acoma, New Mexico<br />
European Exploration – Spain<br />Pueblo Revolt (1680)<br /><ul><li>Led by Pope in response to Spanish attacks on traditio...
United Native Americans in New Mexico
Drove Spain out of the area for about 10 years
One of the most successful native uprisings in US history</li></li></ul><li>European Exploration – France<br />Jacques Car...
Sailed up the St. Lawrence River to what is now Montreal</li></li></ul><li>European Exploration – France<br />Samuel de Ch...
Became a key trading post in the French fur trade
Helped establish an alliance with the Huron Indians
Considered to be the “father” of New France</li></li></ul><li>England - Roanoke<br />Sir Walter Raleigh<br /><ul><li>Instr...
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European Exploration

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European Exploration

  1. 1. European Exploration<br />
  2. 2. European Exploration<br />Early Exploration<br />Why?<br />Spain’s Spark<br />France<br />England<br />Roanoke (1580s)<br />Jamestown (1607)<br />Problems<br />Economic Boom<br />Columbian Exchange<br />
  3. 3. European Exploration – Why?<br />Economic<br /><ul><li>Trade route to the Indies
  4. 4. Gold & other riches
  5. 5. Land for expansion</li></li></ul><li>European Exploration – Why?<br />Religion<br /><ul><li>Escape persecution
  6. 6. Spread Christianity</li></li></ul><li>European Exploration – Why?<br />Curiosity / Adventure<br />Forced Migration<br /><ul><li>African Slave Trade</li></li></ul><li>European Exploration – Spain<br />Christopher Columbus <br />Goal: Find a shorter route to the East<br /><ul><li>Sailed from Spain in 1492
  7. 7. Not the first European to cross the ocean
  8. 8. Map of European Exploration
  9. 9. His voyages led to permanent settlements</li></li></ul><li>European Exploration – Spain<br />Hernando Cortez<br />Goal: Find wealth in Mexico<br /><ul><li>Landed in 1519 with about 600 soldiers
  10. 10. Destroyed his ship
  11. 11. Conquered the Aztecs in 1521</li></li></ul><li>European Exploration – Spain<br />Aztecs & Spanish<br />Spanish Success<br /><ul><li>Aztecs believed Cortez was the god Quetzalcoatl
  12. 12. Smallpox decimated the native population
  13. 13. Differing views of warfare
  14. 14. Spanish technology
  15. 15. Horses & steel</li></li></ul><li>European Exploration – Spain<br />Juan de Onate<br /><ul><li>Led conquistadors in New Mexico in 1598
  16. 16. Crushed the native population at the village of Acoma
  17. 17. About 800 people were killed
  18. 18. Women & children were sold into slavery
  19. 19. Men had one foot cut off</li></li></ul><li>European Exploration – Spain<br />San Esteban Rey – Acoma, New Mexico<br />
  20. 20. European Exploration – Spain<br />Pueblo Revolt (1680)<br /><ul><li>Led by Pope in response to Spanish attacks on traditional Pueblo practices & forced Christianity
  21. 21. United Native Americans in New Mexico
  22. 22. Drove Spain out of the area for about 10 years
  23. 23. One of the most successful native uprisings in US history</li></li></ul><li>European Exploration – France<br />Jacques Cartier<br /><ul><li>Explored the east coast of Canada in the 1530s
  24. 24. Sailed up the St. Lawrence River to what is now Montreal</li></li></ul><li>European Exploration – France<br />Samuel de Champlain<br /><ul><li>Established Quebec in 1608
  25. 25. Became a key trading post in the French fur trade
  26. 26. Helped establish an alliance with the Huron Indians
  27. 27. Considered to be the “father” of New France</li></li></ul><li>England - Roanoke<br />Sir Walter Raleigh<br /><ul><li>Instrumental in the establishment of the Roanoke colony in the 1580s
  28. 28. First settled in 1585 as a base for pirate ships
  29. 29. Poor relations with the native population
  30. 30. Found abandoned in 1590</li></li></ul><li>England - Jamestown<br /><ul><li>Settled in 1607
  31. 31. Considered to be the first “successful” English colony
  32. 32. Organized by the Virginia Company of London</li></li></ul><li>England - Jamestown<br />Troubles<br /><ul><li>Many settlers fell ill from disease
  33. 33. “Gentlemen” refused to do work
  34. 34. Not prepared to survive on their own
  35. 35. Relied on the local Powhatan Indians for food</li></li></ul><li>England - Jamestown<br />John Smith<br /><ul><li>Captured by Chief Powhatan & may have been saved by his daughter, Pocahontas
  36. 36. Negotiated with the Powhatans to obtain access to more food
  37. 37. Implement a “no work, no food” policy in the colony
  38. 38. Returned to England in 1609</li></li></ul><li>England - Jamestown<br />Troubles<br /><ul><li>May 1607 – 101 settlers
  39. 39. January 1608 – 38 survived</li></ul>John Smith<br /><ul><li>December 1608 – 200 settlers
  40. 40. Spring 1609 – 188 survived
  41. 41. December 1609 – 500 settlers
  42. 42. May 1610 – 100 survived</li></li></ul><li>England – Jamestown<br />Economic Boom<br /><ul><li>Tobacco saved the colony from financial disaster
  43. 43. John Rolfe developed a new strain of tobacco that flourished in Virginia
  44. 44. Rolfe married Pocahontas
  45. 45. Eased tensions between the colonists & the Powhatans</li></li></ul><li>England – Jamestown<br />Anglo-Powhatan War (1622-1632)<br /><ul><li>Relations between the colonists & the Powhatans worsened
  46. 46. In 1622 Openchancanough struck back
  47. 47. Killed about 25% of Jamestown’s settlers
  48. 48. Colonists responded by setting out to destroy the Powhatans
  49. 49. Population devastated
  50. 50. 40,000 - 500</li></li></ul><li>Columbian Exchange<br /><ul><li>Items exchanged between Europeans & Native Americans</li></li></ul><li>Columbian Exchange - Crops<br />
  51. 51. Columbian Exchange - Horses<br /><ul><li>Prior to having horses, mobility & private property was limited
  52. 52. Horses, brought by the Spanish, spread to the Great Plains by the mid-1700s
  53. 53. Made hunting buffalo easier & more efficient
  54. 54. Buffalo became central to Native American’s economic & spiritual life</li></li></ul><li>Columbian Exchange - Horses<br />“Buffalo Hunt on the Southwestern Prairies” by John Mix Stanley, 1845<br />
  55. 55. Columbian Exchange - Disease<br /><ul><li>Diseases brought by Europeans caused more deaths & destroyed more of Indian society than any other single factor
  56. 56. Death rates could be as high as 90-95% in some populations</li></li></ul><li>Columbian Exchange - Disease<br />Why So Deadly?<br /><ul><li>Virgin Soil Epidemics
  57. 57. More than one disease could hit at the same time
  58. 58. Deadly nature of the diseases
  59. 59. Smallpox
  60. 60. Chicken pox
  61. 61. Influenza
  62. 62. Measles
  63. 63. Whooping Cough</li></li></ul><li>Review<br /> Compare & contrast the actions of different nations & evaluate the impact of these interactions on both the European nations & the native populations.<br />

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