Renewing the Sectional Struggle
(1848-1854)
Election of 1848
Polk did not run for reelection – ailing
Democrats nominated General Lewis Cass
“Father of popular sovere...
Election of 1848
Whigs nominated Zachary Taylor – “Hero of Buena Vista”
Whigs didn’t choose Clay – too many enemies
Dodged...
Election of 1848
Free Soil Party nominated Martin Van Buren
Supported the Wilmot Proviso
Advocated for internal improvemen...
California Gold Rush 
The discovery of gold ignited issue of slavery in spite of Taylor who had hoped to ignore it
Tens of...
California Gold Rush 
A free California worried many slave-holding Southerners
In 1850, Southern states could veto any ame...
Compromise of 1850
Key Players: Clay, Calhoun, and Webster
Clay defended compromising
Calhoun rejected concessions – leave...
Who Got the Better Deal?
The North…
California’s admission as a free state tipped the balance of power in Congress
The dis...
Election of 1852
Democrats – couldn’t decide who to run
Franklin Pierce (who’s he?)
Dark-horse, enemyless – (pro-Southern ...
Election of 1852
Whigs – should have run someone associated with the Compromise of 1850 (Fillmore or Webster)
Instead, the...
Manifest Destiny Revisited
The South needed more slave territory (UT & NM territories had been left to popular soverei...
Expansion South?
South needed more slave territory (UT and NM territories left to popular sovereignty) but wanted more – C...
The Gadsden Purchase
Transportation Problems – land transportation was necessary to the keep the Pacific Coast from breaki...
Douglas’s Kansas-Nebraska
Stephen Douglas counter attack to South’s Gadsden Purchase
Cut Nebraska Territory in two (Kan. &...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Chapter 18 Notes

571 views

Published on

Published in: Education
0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
571
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
3
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
7
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Chapter 18 Notes

  1. 1. Renewing the Sectional Struggle (1848-1854)
  2. 2. Election of 1848 Polk did not run for reelection – ailing Democrats nominated General Lewis Cass “Father of popular sovereignty” Slavery: Turn the national issue into a local one Flaw: Might spread slavery
  3. 3. Election of 1848 Whigs nominated Zachary Taylor – “Hero of Buena Vista” Whigs didn’t choose Clay – too many enemies Dodged most significant issues, no formal stance on extension of slavery – shove it under the rug
  4. 4. Election of 1848 Free Soil Party nominated Martin Van Buren Supported the Wilmot Proviso Advocated for internal improvements & free homesteads for settlers Taylor wins
  5. 5. California Gold Rush The discovery of gold ignited issue of slavery in spite of Taylor who had hoped to ignore it Tens of thousands flooded California – no stable government established – rampant crime and mayhem ensued 1849 – Drafted a Constitution (excluding slavery) and applied for admission
  6. 6. California Gold Rush A free California worried many slave-holding Southerners In 1850, Southern states could veto any amendment aimed at abolishing slavery The admission of a free would change that They were also upset over the call for abolition in D.C. & the loss of runaways through Underground Railroad They wanted a more stringent fugitive slave law
  7. 7. Compromise of 1850 Key Players: Clay, Calhoun, and Webster Clay defended compromising Calhoun rejected concessions – leave slavery alone, return runaway slaves, restore balance Webster defended Clay’s calls for compromise – famous “Seventh of March Speech” Congress deadlocked on the issue Taylor (influenced by William H. Seward) was likely to veto any compromise Then Taylor died unexpectedly -> Millard Fillmore Compromise
  8. 8. Who Got the Better Deal? The North… California’s admission as a free state tipped the balance of power in Congress The disputed “Texas” territory was surrendered to New Mexico Almost certain to be a free state The slave trade was abolished in DC The most controversial provision was the Fugitive Slave Law Enraged Northerners, some of whom refused to enforce it (like SC in 1832)
  9. 9. Election of 1852 Democrats – couldn’t decide who to run Franklin Pierce (who’s he?) Dark-horse, enemyless – (pro-Southern Northerner – accepted by the pro-slaveryitesof the Democratic party) Platform – territorial expansion, support of Compromise of 1850 (including Fugitive Slave Law)
  10. 10. Election of 1852 Whigs – should have run someone associated with the Compromise of 1850 (Fillmore or Webster) Instead, they went with tradition (military leader) – Winfield Scott As a result, the party was split Antislavery (North) did not agree with Scott’s endorsement of the Fugitive Slave Law Southern Whigs agreed with platform, but weren’t convinced of Scott’s commitment to the Compromise of 1850 Pierce wins in a landslide
  11. 11. Manifest Destiny Revisited The South needed more slave territory (UT & NM territories had been left to popular sovereignty) & the Caribbean William Walker tried to take control of Nicaragua Pierce withdrew diplomatic recognition Coalition of Central American nations formed against him – firing squad
  12. 12. Expansion South? South needed more slave territory (UT and NM territories left to popular sovereignty) but wanted more – Caribbean William Walker tried to take control of Nicaragua Pierce withdrew diplomatic recognition Coalition of Central American nations formed against him – firing squad Cuba Polk had considered offering Spain $100 million (Spanish refused) Southerners try to invade – repelled Angry mob attacks Spain’s consulate in New Orleans Spain seizes Black Warrior Spain won’t have support of England, France, or Russia – Crimean War Ostend Manifesto U.S. offer $120 mil – if refused, US justified in taking Northerners embittered – Pierce Administration drops
  13. 13. The Gadsden Purchase Transportation Problems – land transportation was necessary to the keep the Pacific Coast from breaking away Solution: Transcontinental Railroad Could only afford one line – North or South? Rewards: Wealth, Population, and Influence Economically, South was losing the race with the North South is eager for railroad Best route in the South ran slightly south of Mexican border (needed another chunk of Mexico) James Gadsden negotiates treaty w/ Santa Anna in 1853 -- $10 million Allowed South to insist on Railroad Had land, mountains were less high, route would not pass through any unorganized territory (NM officially a territory w/ federal troops)
  14. 14. Douglas’s Kansas-Nebraska Stephen Douglas counter attack to South’s Gadsden Purchase Cut Nebraska Territory in two (Kan. & Neb.) – Slavery would be determined by popular sovereignty Assumed Nebraska would be free, Kansas would be slave – maintain balance Problem – Contradiction of MC – KS is due west of Missouri – north of 36°30’ Southerners saw a chance to gain one more slave state Northerners react with opposition to the Fugitive Slave Law

×