Hadden public financial management in government of kosovo


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Doug Hadden, FreeBalance The Government of Kosovo has achieved remarkable results in Public Financial Management
(PFM) reform. This post-conflict country once managed through a United Nations mandate
has sequenced legal reform, improved governance, and achieved international PFM standards
under difficult conditions.
Sequencing PFM reform is considered a good government practice, although “it is impossible
to prescribe a sequence of reforms which is appropriate in all circumstances (DFID 2001).”
There are numerous lessons in the Kosovo experience linking reform to context that can be
leveraged by governments around the world.

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Hadden public financial management in government of kosovo

  1. 1. Public Financial Management Reform in KosovoDoug Hadden, FreeBalancedhadden@freebalance.comExecutive OverviewThe Government of Kosovo has achieved remarkable results in Public Financial Management(PFM) reform. This post-conflict country once managed through a United Nations mandatehas sequenced legal reform, improved governance, and achieved international PFM standardsunder difficult conditions.Sequencing PFM reform is considered a good government practice, although “it is impossibleto prescribe a sequence of reforms which is appropriate in all circumstances (DFID 2001).”There are numerous lessons in the Kosovo experience linking reform to context that can beleveraged by governments around the world. Achievements Importance of Public Financial  Improved governance as demonstrated Management Reform by Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability (PEFA) assessments Research has shown a statistically relevant link  Appropriate sequencing of PFM reform between good governance indicators and  Capacity built for budget execution, cash development (Kaufmann, Kraay & Mastruzzi management and procurement 2008). For example, countries whose government-wide governments achieve higher good governance  Decentralization of budget execution indicators tend to have higher GDP per capita reflecting successful capacity building and longer average life expectancy.  PFM achieving International and European standards PFM reform is acknowledged to be a mechanism to improve good governance. “Thequality of public financial management (PFM) systems is a key determinant of governmenteffectiveness. The capacity to direct, manage and track public spending allows governmentsto pursue their national objectives and account for the use of public resources and donorfunds (de Renzio & Dorotinsky 2007).”Financial Management Information Systems (FMIS) or Government Resource Planning(Government Resource Planning) are recognized as technology tools to assist in PFM reform.“The establishment of an FMIS has consequently become an important benchmark for thecountry’s budget reform agenda, often regarded as a precondition for achieving effectivemanagement of the budgetary resources. Although it is not a panacea, the benefits of anFMIS could be argued to be profound. (Diamond & Khemani 2005).”History of PFM Reform in KosovoPFM reform in Kosovo began with the United Nations Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) in 1999.UNMIK created an administrative structure creating the “Central Fiscal Authority (CFA),later renamed the Ministry of Finance and Economy (MINISTRY OF FINANCE ANDECONOMY) (Rodin-Brown 2008).” The financial system was upgraded through the use ofan Integrated Financial Management Information System (IFMIS) funded by the CanadianInternational Development Agency (CIDA), the Swedish International Development Agency(SIDA), and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) (Rodin-Brown 2008).International Journal of Governmental Financial Management 13
  2. 2. USAID provided funding for “the main areas of government fiscal management: tax policyand analysis, tax administration, expenditure policy, budget management and control,intergovernmental fiscal relations, and sub-national government finance (USAID, South Eastern Europe Regional Comparisons &2006).” Government ChallengesSince 1999, the Government of Kosovo has  Lowest per capita GDP PPPenhanced legal reform, control, fiscaldecentralization and purchasing.ChallengesEconomicKosovo has experienced diremacroeconomic conditions during and afterthe breakup of the Yugoslav federation.The economy “was essentially decimated  Highest unemploymentby the Kosovo War (Tang 2010).”“Kosovo is one of the poorest countries inEurope (World Bank 2009).” Improvedeconomic development is critical tocountry stability (Bytyci 2009).Capacity and SustainabilityLike many post-conflict countries, Kosovohas been challenged to effectively andfinancially achieve sustainable PFMreform. PFM capacity needed to be built.  Lowest Human Development Index“The Albanian-speaking majority whoremained in Kosovo after the war did notinclude an experienced cadre of technical,professional and managerial specialistsready to take up key positions (USAID2006).” Capacity building requiredgovernment ownership in order to ensuresustainability. At first “public expendituremanagement in Kosovo was almostentirely handled by internationals (Sigma2004).”Government GoalsThe Government of Kosovo has strategic plans to increase economic growth, improvegovernance, and reduce poverty (Tang 2010). These plans are also designed to achieveEuropean Union membership (Tandberg & Pavesic-Skerlep 2009).Improved Governance and TransparencyInternational Journal of Governmental Financial Management 14
  3. 3. The Government of Kosovo recognizes how good governance can improve developmentresults (MTEF 2009). Social cohesion can PEFA Assessmentsbe achieved through governance reform  Donor Partnership: “PEFA aims to supportthrough transparent institutions, integrated and harmonized approaches todecentralization and improved access to assessment and reform in the field of public expenditure, procurement and financialcitizen services (World Bank 2009). accountability”The Government of Kosovo is now focused  Completed two Public Expenditure andon executing the full budget in order to Financial Accountability (PEFA) assessmentsachieve the best results (Tang 2010 and  Over 75 National and Sub-national PEFA assessments have been completedMTEF 2009). Public Expenditure and  Less than 10 countries have completed twoFinancial Accountability (PEFA) PEFA assessmentsassessments have been used by the PEFA ComparisonsGovernment of Kosovo to set priorities for  Kosovo PEFA improvements from 2007 to 2009improved governance.The Government of Kosovo has achievedsignificant improvements in governancebetween 2007 and 2009 according to thePEFA assessments. The 2009 PEFAassessment exceeds PEFA assessmentaverages (de Renzio 2009). This assessmentalso exceeds the average for South EasternEurope, although many countries in theregion have not completed a PEFAassessment or have not completed anassessment for more than two years.It should be noted that the government  Kosovo exceeds international averagecontext is critical in assessing PFM.Governments focus on those assessmentcriteria that is critical for improvement.Even the Government of Norway was notable to achieve top marks across all criteria(Mundal 2008). The Government of Kosovohas achieved excellent results (B andhigher) for over half of the assessmentcriteria.2009 Kosovo PEFA Assessment – “A” PI-3 Aggregate revenue out-turn compared to original approved budget PI-5 Classification of the budget PI-7 Extent of unreported government operations PI-16 Predictability in the availability of funds for commitment of expenditures PI-17 Recording and management of cash balances, debt and guarantees PI-25 Quality and timeliness of annual financial statementsInternational Journal of Governmental Financial Management 15
  4. 4. Sequence of PFM Reform in Kosovo Good Practice: Sequencing PFMPhasing of PFM “reform, through achieving gradual Reformmanageable steps (DFID 2005)” is considered a good  Kosovo began with simplepractice. The sequence of reform depends on the centralized financial managementcountry context. “Implementing public finance  Initial system configured toreforms of any kind requires an understanding of the Yugoslav model before updating toentire public finance system in place in that country. international standardsIt requires an understanding of the institutional  Improvements to financial management processes followedarrangements (Rodin-Brown 2008).” legal reformTechnology solutions like Government Resource  Decentralization to line ministriesPlanning should follow reform. “The Kosovo and municipal governments followed capacity buildingenvironment was unique; the fiscal management  Support of the Treasury Singlerequirements were NOT. System implementation can Account enables managing allbe achieved in a matter of weeks; financial government fundsmanagement reform takes years (Brajshori 2007).”  Addition of governmentGovernments tend to implement budget, treasury and accounting, fixed assetaccounting standards before embarking on management and purchasing functionality in line withperformance management initiatives (Tandberg & government objectivesPavesic-Skerlep 2009).  Development and improvement ofLegal Reform the macro-fiscal framework including support of Medium TermLegal reform is required before embarking on public Expenditure Frameworks to alignfinancial management reform (Spietzer 2008). budgets with government“Technology is an early building block in creating objectivesgood governance and must be introduced in a phased  Sequencing of transparency efforts including publishingimplementation to allow absorption of key monthly, quarterly and yearlygovernment reforms. Technology should be budget reportssupported by sound governance legislation: rules,regulations, finance administrative instructions etc. (Brajshori 2007).”The Government of Kosovo has phased institution building with the legal framework(SIGMA 2009-PEM). This has resulted in a constitution in line with European standards (EU2008). Legal reform has also enabled the support for public sector accounting standards suchas the IMF Government Financial Statistics (GFS) and the International Public SectorAccounting Standards (IPSAS) (Smith-EMSG 2009, PEFA, 2009).Budget and Treasury ManagementFinancial management began by using the practices used by the Yugoslav model (Rodin-Brown 2008). The Kosovo Financial Management Information System (KFMIS), using theFreeBalance Accountability Suite, was initially implemented in 26 days to support budgetcontrols (Rodin-Brown 2008). Successful implementation bred more reform (Brajshori2007). The KFMIS was extended and modernized following the reform program set by theGovernment of Kosovo.Budget execution and treasury management were the initial priorities. Procurement,decentralization and revenue modernization followed. The modernization of PFM enablesgovernments to establish credibility. The Government of Kosovo has established credibilityInternational Journal of Governmental Financial Management 16
  5. 5. in fiscal management by assuming a portion of Yugoslav government debt (World Bank2009).Sequence of PFM Reform in Kosovo: 1999 to 2009LEGAL REFORM TECHNOLOGY MODERNIZATION  Pilot Government Resource UNMIK administration 1999 Planning system implemented in 26 days  Full Government Resource 2000 Planning project launched UNMIK Regulation on the Establishment of the Kosovo Board on Standards for Financial 2001  Deployment to all 5 Regions Reporting (KBSFR) Law on Kosovo Civil Service  Training and Certification of Ministry of Finance and Economy established 2002 Ministry of Finance Kosovo Accounting Standards (KAS) developed  Core system goes live  Sustainability and Capacity Law on Financial Management and Training Accountability (LFMA)  System available in Serbian and Law on Public Procurement 2003 Albanian Public Service Laws on Recruitment,  Deployment to all 30 Probationary Period, Appeals, Termination Municipalities  Payroll interface  Revenues module goes live Law on International Financial Agreements 2004  Local sustainability team in place Public Service Law on Official Travel  Bank Electronic Interface Medium Term Expenditure Framework introduced Suppression of Corruption Law & creation of the  Budget system interface 2005 Office of Ombudsperson  VPN to all budget institutions Public Service Laws on Gender Equality and Independent Oversight Board Cash and Debt Management division created All tax and not tax revenue implemented via  Asset Module goes live Treasury Single Account 2006  Disaster recover site established Law on Internal Auditing  Purchasing Module goes live Public Service Law on Civil Service Code of Conduct First PEFA Assessment Law on Preventing Conflict of Interest in  Support for IPSAS and GFS in 2007 Exercising Public Function Chart of Accounts and in 2006 Independent Anti-Corruption Agency financial reports established Republic of Kosovo Constitution in force Law on Public Financial Management and Accountability (LFMA) putting MTEF in legal  Chart of Accounts (COA) adapted force 2008 to support program oriented Law on Local Government Finances (LLGF) budgeting Law on Local Self Government (LLSG) Law on Publicly Owned Enterprises Second PEFA Assessment  Payment decentralization to PFM Reform Action Plan hospitals and municipalities 2009 Law on Membership of the Republic of Kosovo  Regional treasuries closed in the International Monetary Fund and World  Enhanced reporting pilotInternational Journal of Governmental Financial Management 17
  6. 6. Bank Group Organizations Law on Public-Private-Partnerships and Concessions in Infrastructure and the Procedures for Their Award Law on Internal Audit Law on Public Debt Law on Declaration and Origin of the Property and presents of Public Senior Officials Law on Salaries of Civil Servants 2010 Law on the Civil Service of the Republic of Kosovo Law on Access to Public DocumentsImportant DevelopmentsImproving PFM has cross-cutting effects. Many challenges remain in Kosovo because of thehistorical and macro-economic situation. Nevertheless, there have been improved economicdevelopment, financial management, transparency and civil service capacity building.Economic Developments “Kosovo and Albania were the only two countries in the Western Balkans that experienced positive economic growth in 2009 (Tang 2010).” “Amidst signs that the worldwide recession is easing, the slowdown in Kosovo’s economic growth has remained orderly (IMF 2009/09).”Financial Management and Transparency “Kosovo has made significant progress in establishing a workable public financial management system, including a sound legal framework (World Bank 2009).” “The greatest strength of the Kosovo PFM is its treasury system; not because of its sophistication in terms of functionality or its classification system, but simply because it is comprehensive and is able to produce timely and reasonable analytical reports (PEFA 2007).” “Treasury Department external audits show zero (or near-zero) errors. (Smith 2009-EMSG)” “In the broad sense of the term, the internal control structure has been established in Kosovo. The basic legal framework is sound, with clear structures of accountability (SIGMA 2008).” “Other strengths are found in the areas of internal audit and control and external audit where the process is in place and capacity is being built up for effective implementation (PEFA, 2009) “Good fiscal reports are produced based on the information extracted from the treasury system and the reports from the Auditor General are available on the Internet (PEFA 2007).” “Information about budget execution is produced monthly, quarterly and annually (SIGMA 2006- PEM)” “Improvement in reports by structure of the budget and present fund balance commitment for each economic category and budgetary organization. All reports are presented in compliance with IPSAS. (PEFA 2009)” “The quality of Treasury reporting has enabled complex strategic fiscal planning (i.e. MTEF) that is based on detailed current and historical fiscal analysis. Moreover, improvements in Treasury reporting have increased the level of public debate on fiscal issues, including within politics and media (USAID 2006).” “The 2009-2011 Budget incorporated detailed multi-year ceilings for both capital and recurrent elements. Further, preparation has commenced in full accordance with the timetable specified in the LPFMA. Of most critical importance is that the MTEF was completed by the end of April, which is earlier than previous years and provides a solid base for the rest of the process. (Smith 2009-EMSG)” Noticeable progress was achieved in the area of availability of main municipal budget process related documents to municipal stakeholders and general public. (Smith, 2009-EMSG)”Capacity Building “Comprehensive Training and Certification Program and mentoring of local staff - some are still with Treasury after five years (Brajshori 2007)”International Journal of Governmental Financial Management 18
  7. 7.  “A very strong macroeconomic analysis department exists. It is widely acknowledged to be an important and integral part of the MINISTRY OF FINANCE AND ECONOMY. The department uses a small but sophisticated macroeconomic model to perform regular forecasts of the Kosovo economy and analysis of specific issues (Smith 2007-EMSG).” “This year, MINISTRY OF FINANCE AND ECONOMY staff took the lead in drafting the Budget Regulation and conducting necessary communication with the UNMIK Legal Office, with the Advisors playing mainly supportive roles. MINISTRY OF FINANCE AND ECONOMY staff demonstrated its capacity to produce required budget documents, with increasing focus on improving the quality of the budget presentation. (Smith 2007-EMSG)” “In contrast to preparation of the prior MTEF, which depended on internationals to develop and run the required macroeconomic models and to write most parts of the final document, the analysis and drafting of the 2008-2010 MTEF was largely a Kosovar effort (Redbern, Fox, Gellerson 2009).”ConclusionsRoad to Good Governance Kosovo Good Governance Regional ComparisonsGlobalization has created a  Kosovo needs to improve governancecompetitive environment forcountries. Risk and opportunityare key drivers for businesses.Good governance creates countrystability and encourages businessinvestment to fuel economicgrowth. Improving governance isa strategic objective for theGovernment of Kosovo “tocreate an effectiveadministration, professional,transparent in accordance with democratic principles and oriented towards providing the bestpossible services to citizens (MTEF 2010).Government Resource Planning Modernization ScorecardThe scope of reform and modernization differs among governments based on the countrycontext. Government Resource Planning functionality in the Government of Kosovo iscomprehensive and decentralized. Further modernization of automation is part of the PFMReform Action Plan. Functionality Decentralization Modernization  Budget controls  Line ministries  Segregation of dutiesPublic Financial  Assets  Regions  IPSAS & GFSManagement  Audit  Municipalities  Accrual accounting  Cash management  Bank reconciliationGovernment  Cash controls  EFTTreasury  Debt management  Delegated treasury  Treasury SingleManagement  Investment Account management  Cash forecasting  Procurement  e-ProcurementPublic Expenditure  Expenditure Controls  Delegated purchasing  ProcurementManagement  Purchasing transparency  Grant managementInternational Journal of Governmental Financial Management 19
  8. 8. Government  Non-tax revenueReceipts  Income tax  Local tax collection  Case managementManagement  Customs  Payroll  Recruitment  Pensions  Talent managementCivil Service  Workforce  Capacity building Management management  Performance appraisal  Succession planning  Civil service planning  Self-Service  PEFA assessments  Budget  Budget delegation  Program budgeting classifications  Bottom-up Budgets  MTEFGovernment  Management  Budget transparencyPerformance reporting  Macro-fiscalManagement  Budget preparation  Local PEFA framework  Budget circular assessments  Scenario planning  Citizen services  Performance budgets  Outcome measuresItems highlighted in white have been implemented, in gray have yet to be implementedRoadmap for ReformThe Government of Kosovo Public Financial Management Reform Plan (PFMRAP 2009)identified numerous important reforms leveraging Government Resource Planning systems.Public Financial Management Reduce under-spending particularly in important infrastructure projects and gradual increase in accrual reporting Improve timeliness and accuracy of municipal financial data Improve audit capacity for all budget organizations and reduce delays in reporting external audit reportsGovernment Treasury Management More timely revenue reconciliation and daily bank reconciliation reporting Increase regularity of cash flow forecasts and link debt and cash management functionalityPublic Expenditure Management Reach more markets in public tendering to ensure competitive pricing, simplify and monitor procurement procedures Grants Commission to manage transfers to municipalitiesGovernment Receipts Management Improve tax audits and reduce tax arrears while increasing the automation of tax managementCivil Service Management Improve payroll controls and payroll forecasting Integration of human resources data to enable improve audit Support civil service reform through automated human resource management Upgrade ICT systems to support integrated human resources, payroll and financial managementGovernment Performance Management Improve budget formulation and strategic planning – ensure that budget calendar is followed More effective multiple year planning including better linkage of budgets with government objectives Use of performance information in budget preparation and improved monitoring and evaluation Improve managerial reporting Improve donor coordinationInternational Journal of Governmental Financial Management 20
  9. 9. Government of Kosovo Lessons LearnedMany governments can leverage the experience of the Government of Kosovo. Othercountries share many of the challenges and opportunities with Kosovo.Focus of Development “Development strategy should be balanced between effectively implementing programs that could lessen societal tensions in the short-term while simultaneously putting in place the foundations for stable institutions and sustained growth in the medium- to longer-term (World Bank 2009).”Decentralization for Regional and Ethnic Issues “Institutional strengthening and good governance, including effective central and municipal government and establishment of a level playing field for the different ethnic groups, will be crucial to longer term development and stability (World Bank 2009).”Technology Follows Reform “Technology is an early building block in creating good governance and must be introduced in a phased implementation to allow absorption of key government reforms. Technology should be supported by sound governance legislation: rules, regulations, finance administrative instructions etc. (Brajshori 2007.)”Government Ownership Critical to Improvements “Preparing a time-bound Public Financial Management Reform Action Plan designed to address the key weaknesses identified by the PEFA self-assessment (World Bank 2009).”Donor Co-ordination can Accelerate Development “One of the most important issues affecting reforms in this area is the lack of effective donor co- ordination, which results in an ineffective use of most of the resources provided. (SIGMA 2009-PEM).”BibliographyBrajshori, Behxhet (2007) Achievements and Challenges in the Management of the PublicFinances in Kosovo, International Consortium on Governmental Financial Management,http://www.icgfm.org/documents/Brajshori_kosovoEng.pptBrajshori, Behxhet (2009) Brajshori. Economic and Financial Developments in Kosovo andthe global crisis, International Consortium on Governmental Financial Managementhttp://www.slideshare.net/icgfmconference/country-responses-to-the-financial-crisis-kosovoBytyci, Fatos (2009) After billions in aid, Kosovo still poor and idle, Reutershttp://www.reuters.com/article/idUSBYT832920._CH_.2400Department for International Development (2001) UK, Understanding and reforming publicexpenditure managementhttp://webarchive.nationalarchives.gov.uk/+/http://www.dfid.gov.uk/documents/publications/pfma-pem.pdf-----------(2005) A Platform Approach to Improving Public Financial Managementhttp://www.train4dev.net/fileadmin/Resources/General_Documents/DfID_A%20Platform%20Approach%20to%20PFM.pdfde Renzio, Paolo (2009) Taking Stock: What do PEFA Assessments tell us about PFMsystems across countries Overseas Development Institutehttp://www.odi.org.uk/resources/download/3333.pdfDiamond, Jack, Khemani, Pokar (2005) Introducing Financial Management InformationSystems in Developing Countries, International Monetary Fundhttp://www.unescobkk.org/fileadmin/user_upload/epr/MTEF/04Financial_Planning/02ModerInternational Journal of Governmental Financial Management 21
  10. 10. nization_of_public_sector_management/040204004Diamond,%20J.%20and%20Khemani,%20P.%20%282005%29.pdfDorotinsky, William (2003)The World Bank’s Experience with Financial ManagementInformation System, The World Bankhttp://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTRANETFINANCIALMGMT/Resources/K-L/KL-COURSE-MATERIALS/ReviewWBprojIFMISdorotinsky.pdfEuropean Union (2008) EU Commission Kosovo Progress Report http://www.wbc-inco.net/attach/kosovo_progress_report_en.pdfInternational Monetary Fund (2009/06) Republic of Kosovo—IMF Staff Visit ConcludingStatement http://www.imf.org/external/np/ms/2009/062409.htm-----------(2009/09) Republic of Kosovo—IMF Staff Visit, Concluding Statementhttp://www.imf.org/external/np/ms/2009/091609.htmKaufmann, Daniel, Kraay, Aart, Mastruzzi, Massimo (2008) Governance Matters VII:Aggregate and Individual Governance Indicators 1996-2007http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1148386Kosovo, Government of, (PEFA 2007) Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability(PEFA) Public Financial Management Assessment http://www.Ministry of Finance andEconomy-ks.org/old/Shqip/English/mefwww/departamentet/pmakroekonomike/PEFA/pefaangmakro.pdf----------MidTerm Expenditures Framework (MTEF 2009), 2010-2012 http://www.mef-rks.org/en/download/mid-term-expenditure-framework/midterm-expenditures-framework-2010-2012/2130-midterm-expenditures-framework-2010-2012/download----------Medium Term Expenditures Framework 2011-2013 (MTEF 2010) http://www.mef-rks.org/en/download/mid-term-expenditure-framework/medium-term-expenditure-framework-2011--2013/2777-medium-term-expenditure-framework-2011--2013/download----------Public Financial Management Reform Action Plan (PFM RAP 2009)http://www.mef-rks.org/en/download/other-publications-and-reports/2421-public-financial-management-reform-action-plan-pfm-rap/download----------Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability (PEFA 2009) Public FinancialManagement Assessment http://www.mef-rks.org/en/download/other-publications-and-reports/2032-public-expenditure-and-financial-accountability-pefa-public-financial-management-assessmentMundal, Håkon (2008) Public Financial Management Performance Report – Norway,Norwegian Agency for International Cooperationhttp://www.norad.no/en/Tools+and+publications/Publications/Publication+Page?key=109797Redbern, F. Stevens, Fox, James W., Gellerson, Mark (2009) Evaluation of the EconomicManagement for Stability and Growth Program, Kosovo, United States Agency forInternational Development http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PDACN920.pdfRodin-Brown, Edwin (2008) Integrated Financial Management Information Systems: APractical Guide, United States Agency for International Developmenthttp://www.fiscalreform.net/images/ifmis_rodinbrown_080425.pdfInternational Journal of Governmental Financial Management 22
  11. 11. Smith, Matthew (2007-EMSG) Kosovo Economic Management for Stability and Growth,United States Agency for International Developmenthttp://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PDACL494.pdf-----------(2007-EDI) Kosovo Economic Development Initiative, Final Project Report, UnitedStates Agency for International Development http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PDACL385.pdf-----------(2009-EMSG) Economic Management for Stability and Growth, Annual Report,United States Agency for International Developmenthttp://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PDACO702.pdfSpitzer, Deborah (2008) quoted at http://icgfm.blogspot.com/2008/12/good-practices-for-sequencing-pfm.htmlSupport for Improvement in Governance and Management (SIGMA 2004) PublicExpenditure Management in Kosovohttps://www.sigmaweb.org/dataoecd/38/32/34991431.pdf-----------(SIGMA 2006-PEM) SIGMA Kosovo Public Expenditure Management Assessmenthttp://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/30/21/37739132.pdf-----------(SIGMA 2009-PEM) SIGMA Kosovo Public Expenditure Management SystemAssessment http://www.sigmaweb.org/dataoecd/31/42/43912978.pdfSymansky, Steven (2005) Public Expenditure Management in Post Conflict Countries, WorldBank http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTRANETFINANCIALMGMT/Resources/K-L/KL-COURSE-MATERIALS/6sessionSymanskyPEMPostConflict.pdfTanberg, Eivind, Pavesic-Skerlep, Mia (2009) Advanced Public Financial ManagementReforms in South East Europe, International Monetary Fundhttp://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/wp/2009/wp09102.pdfTang, Stephanie (2010) Balance of Power: Kosovo Topic B: Economic Development inKosovo, Northwestern Universityhttp://www.numun.org/pdfs/2010/BOP%20Kosovo%20Topic%20B.pdfUnited States Agency for International Development (2006) Kosovo EconomicReconstruction Project: Development Alternativeshttp://www.fiscalreform.net/pdfs/kosovo_tax_and_expenditure_2006.pdfWorld Bank (2009) Interim Strategy Note for Republic of Kosovo for the Period FY10-FY11, http://siteresources.worldbank.org/KOSOVOEXTN/Resources/297769-1266424306995/Kosovo_full_report.pdfInternational Journal of Governmental Financial Management 23